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Frontal Squama
Forms the Forehead
Temporal Line
On the lateral ectocranial surface mark the attachment of the temporalis muscle, a major elevator of the mandible, and its covering, the temporal fascia, a fascial sheet that covers the temporalis.   The temporal line defines the superior edge of the temporal surface (and fossa).  This line becomes a crest in its anterior, lateral extent (on the zygomatic process of the frontal).  It often divides into superior and inferior lines as it sweeps posteriorly.
Zygomatic process
Form the most lateral and anterior corners of the frontal
Supraorbital notch
(or foramina, if the notches are bridged) are set along the medial half of the superior orbital rim.  The transmit the supraorbital vessels and supraorbital nerve as they pass superiorly to the forehead region.
Supraorbital foramen
(or foramina, if the notches are bridged) are set along the medial half of the superior orbital rim.  The transmit the supraorbital vessels and supraorbital nerve as they pass superiorly to the forehead region.
Supraorbital margin
Are the upper orbital edges.  These are notched or pierced by the supraorbital notch or foramen.
Superciliary arch
(brow ridges) are the bony tori over the orbits.  They are most prominent in males and are sometimes joined by a prominent glabellar region.
Frontal eminence
(or tubers or bosses) dominate the ectocranial surface.  These paired frontal bosses mark the location of the original centers of ossification of this bone
Arachnoid foveae
Are especially apparent near the coronal suture along the endocranial midline.  On both sides of the midline the endocranial surface of the frontal bears depressions for convolutions of the frontal lobes of the brain.
Frontal crest
Is a midline crest confluent with the anterior end of the sagittal sulcus.  This crest gives attachment to the falx cerebri, a strong membrane between the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain.
Pars orbitalis
 (or orbital plate, is the horizontal portion of the frontal.  Its endocranial surface is undulating (bumpy), conforming to the inferior surface of the frontal lobe.  Its inferior surface (orbital surface) is smoother and concave.
Foramen cecum
A foramen of varying size, is found at the root, or base, of the frontal crest and transmits a small vein from the frontal sinus to the superior sagittal sinus.
Frontal sinuses (inferior portions)
Generally anterior to the ethmioidal notch, extend for a variable distance between outer and inner bone tables of the frontal and sometimes penetrate the orbital plates.
Horizontal portion
Acts to roof the orbits and to floor the frontal lobes of the brain.
Meningeal grooves
The middle meningeal arteries are present on both sides of the concave endocranial surface of the frontal squama.   The brain is covered with a tough outer protective membrane, the dura mater, whose blood supply comes from the meningeal arteries.
Sagittal sulcus
Is a vertical groove that runs down the midline of the endocranial surface.  It lodges the superior sagittal sinus, a large vessel that drains blood from the brain.
Supraorbital notch
 (or foramina, if the notches are bridged) are set along the medial half of the superior orbital rim.  The transmit the supraorbital vessels and supraorbital nerve as they pass superiorly to the forehead region.
Supraorbital margin
Are the upper orbital edges.  These are notched or pierced by the supraorbital notch or foramen.
Pars orbitalis
 (or orbital plate, is the horizontal portion of the frontal.  Its endocranial surface is undulating (bumpy), conforming to the inferior surface of the frontal lobe.  Its inferior surface (orbital surface) is smoother and concave.
Zygomatic Process
Form the most lateral and anterior corners of the frontal
Ethmoidal notch
The gap separating the two orbital plates of the frontal.  The ethmoid bone fills this notch in the articulated cranium.
Frontal sinus
Generally anterior to the ethmioidal notch, extend for a variable distance between outer and inner bone tables of the frontal and sometimes penetrate the orbital plates.
Lacrimal fossa
For the lacrimal glands, are found at the lateral, inferior parts of the orbital (inferior) surfaces of the frontal.
Superciliary Arch
(brow ridges) are the bony tori over the orbits.  They are most prominent in males and are sometimes joined by a prominent glabellar region.
Supraorbital Foramen
 (or foramina, if the notches are bridged) are set along the medial half of the superior orbital rim.  They transmit the supraorbital vessels and supraorbital nerve as they pass superiorly to the forehead region.
Parietal foramen
When present, is located close to the sagittal suture near lambda.  It transmits a small vein through the parietal to the superior sagittal sinus.
Occipital angle
Is located at lambda
Mastoid angle
Is located at asterion
Parietal striae
Are striations, or “rays,” that pass posterosuperiorly for some distance on the ectocranial surface of the parietal from their origin on its beveled squamous edge.
Sphenoidal angle
Is located at pterion
Inferior temporal line
Indicates the most superior extent of the temporalis muscle
Superior temporal line
Anchors the temporal ascia
Parietal tuber
(or boss or eminence) is the large, rounded eminence centered on the ectocranial surface of the parietal.  It marks the center of ossification of the bone.
Frontal angle
Is located at bregma
Frontal angle
Is located at bregma
Arachnoid fovea
 (or granular) are concentrated endocranially along the anterior extent of the sagittal edge of each parietal.  They are functionally equivalent to structures of the same name described for the frontal.
Meningeal grooves
For middle meningeal arteries dominated the endocranial surface of the parietal.  These arteries supply the dura mater.  The most anterior branch parallels the coronal edge of the parietal, and most of the branches traverse the bone toward its occipital angle.
Sphenoidal angle
Is located at pterion
Mastoid angle
Is located at asterion
sigmoid/transverse sulcus
Crosses the mastoid angle of the parietal, cutting a groove on the endocranial surface.  It marks the course of the transverse (or sigmoid) sinus, a vessel that drains blood from the brain.
Occipital angle
Is located at lambda
Sagittal sulcus
Is made when the parietals are articulated and the shallow grooves along the sagittal edge of each parietal combine along the endocranial midline.  This sulcus is a posterior continuation of the same feature on the frontal
Suprameatal Crest
Is the superior root of the zygomatic process.  It runs horizontally above the EAM where the craniometric point auriculare is located.
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