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Living and non living matter is composed of atoms
positively charged, with one or more negatively charged electron moving around it.
Negatively charged particle, has negligible
Positively charged, has a mass of 1
NO electrical charge, has a mass of 1
the mass of a proton, standard unit of measure
is a pure substance that contains only one kind of atom.
98% of the mass of living organisms (6)
Carbon(C) Hydrogen(H) Nitrogen(N) Oxygen(O) Phosphorus(P) Sulfur(S)
Atomic Number
The number of protons.
Mass number
The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Bohr model, electron shell
first shell:2 electrons, Second and Subsequent shells: 8 electrons
Chemical Bond
is an attractive force that links 2 atoms together in a molecule
Ionic Bond
Are formed as a result of the elctrical attraction between ions bearing opposite charges
is an eletrically charged particle that forms when an atom gains or loses one or more electrons
Positively charged Ions
Negatively charged ions
Covalent Bonds
Form when two atoms attain stable electron numbers in their outermost shells by sharing one or more pairs of electrons.
Single Bond
Sharing of a single pair of electrons; Ex- H-H or C-H
Double Bond
Sharing of four electrons; Ex- C=C
Triple Bond
Sharing 6 electrons
The attractive force that an atomic nucleus exerts on electrons in a covalent bond
Nonpolar covalent bond
2 atoms sharing electrons equally
Polar Covalent Bond
when electrons are drawn to one nucleus more than to the other
Hydrogen Bond
Sharing of H atoms
The capacity of water molecules to resist coming apart from one another when placed under tension.
"water loving"; molecules separate and surround water molecules
"Water hating" tend to aggregate w/ one another instead of the water molecules
Large molecules; 4 kind in living things; Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids
Polymers Monomers
"Many units" "Smaller molecules"
the addition of water breaks a polymer into monomers
the removal of water links monomers together.
A larger group of molecules that all have similiar atomic compositions but differ greatly in size, chemical properties, and bio functions
are relatively simple molecules with up to 7 carbon atoms
Glycosidic linkages
Bond between carbohydrate molecules through an intervening O atom
contain several monosaccharides bound together by glycosidic linkages; Covalently bonded to proteins and lipids on the puter surfaces of cells
a single glycosidic linkage between 2 monosaccharides
store energy and provide structural material
is a water-insoluble, highly branched polymer of glucose that is the major energy storage molecule in mammals.
Fats; are hydrocarbons are insoluble in water because of their many nonpolar covalent bonds.
most common of unit of lipids, aka simple lipids, Solid=fats liquid=oils ; 3 acid molecules and 1 glycerol molecule.
Is a small molecule w/ 3 hydroxil groups; it is an alcohol
Fatty Acid
Consist of a long nonpolar hydrocarbon chain attached to the polar carboxyl
Saturated fatty acid
molecules are rigid and straight, and packed together tightly.
Unsaturated fatty acids
Kinks in the chain prevent the unsaturated molecules from packing together tightly.
fatty acid with a hydrophilic end and a long hydrophobic tail.
a phosphate-containing compound replaces one of the fatty acids, giving these molecules amphipathic properties .
Chemical Reaction
occurs when atoms have sufficient energy to combine, or change their bonding partners
The sum total of all the chemical reactions occuring in a biological system at a given time.
Energy ( 5 forms)
Chemical, electrical, heat, light, and mechanical
Potential Energy
is the energy of state or positin- stored energy.
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