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Atoms
Living and non living matter is composed of atoms
Nucleus
positively charged, with one or more negatively charged electron moving around it.
  electrons
Negatively charged particle, has negligible
Protons
Positively charged, has a mass of 1
Neutrons
NO electrical charge, has a mass of 1
Dalton
the mass of a proton, standard unit of measure
Element
is a pure substance that contains only one kind of atom.
98% of the mass of living organisms (6)
Carbon(C) Hydrogen(H) Nitrogen(N) Oxygen(O) Phosphorus(P) Sulfur(S)
Atomic Number
The number of protons.
Mass number
The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Bohr model, electron shell
first shell:2 electrons, Second and Subsequent shells: 8 electrons
Chemical Bond
is an attractive force that links 2 atoms together in a molecule
Ionic Bond
Are formed as a result of the elctrical attraction between ions bearing opposite charges
Ion
is an eletrically charged particle that forms when an atom gains or loses one or more electrons
Cations
Positively charged Ions
Anions
Negatively charged ions
Covalent Bonds
Form when two atoms attain stable electron numbers in their outermost shells by sharing one or more pairs of electrons.
Single Bond
Sharing of a single pair of electrons; Ex- H-H or C-H
Double Bond
Sharing of four electrons; Ex- C=C
Triple Bond
Sharing 6 electrons
Electronegativity
The attractive force that an atomic nucleus exerts on electrons in a covalent bond
Nonpolar covalent bond
2 atoms sharing electrons equally
Polar Covalent Bond
when electrons are drawn to one nucleus more than to the other
Hydrogen Bond
Sharing of H atoms
Cohesion
The capacity of water molecules to resist coming apart from one another when placed under tension.
Hydrophilic
"water loving"; molecules separate and surround water molecules
Hydrophobic
"Water hating" tend to aggregate w/ one another instead of the water molecules
Macromolecules
Large molecules; 4 kind in living things; Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids
Polymers Monomers
"Many units" "Smaller molecules"
Hydrolysis
the addition of water breaks a polymer into monomers
Condensation
the removal of water links monomers together.
Carbohydrates
A larger group of molecules that all have similiar atomic compositions but differ greatly in size, chemical properties, and bio functions
Monosaccharides
are relatively simple molecules with up to 7 carbon atoms
Glycosidic linkages
Bond between carbohydrate molecules through an intervening O atom
Oligosaccharides
contain several monosaccharides bound together by glycosidic linkages; Covalently bonded to proteins and lipids on the puter surfaces of cells
Disaccharide
a single glycosidic linkage between 2 monosaccharides
polysaccharides
store energy and provide structural material
Glycogen
is a water-insoluble, highly branched polymer of glucose that is the major energy storage molecule in mammals.
Lipids
Fats; are hydrocarbons are insoluble in water because of their many nonpolar covalent bonds.
Triglycerides
most common of unit of lipids, aka simple lipids, Solid=fats liquid=oils ; 3 acid molecules and 1 glycerol molecule.
Glycerol
Is a small molecule w/ 3 hydroxil groups; it is an alcohol
Fatty Acid
Consist of a long nonpolar hydrocarbon chain attached to the polar carboxyl
Saturated fatty acid
molecules are rigid and straight, and packed together tightly.
Unsaturated fatty acids
Kinks in the chain prevent the unsaturated molecules from packing together tightly.
Amphipathic
fatty acid with a hydrophilic end and a long hydrophobic tail.
Phospholipids
a phosphate-containing compound replaces one of the fatty acids, giving these molecules amphipathic properties .
Chemical Reaction
occurs when atoms have sufficient energy to combine, or change their bonding partners
Metabolism
The sum total of all the chemical reactions occuring in a biological system at a given time.
Energy ( 5 forms)
Chemical, electrical, heat, light, and mechanical
Potential Energy
is the energy of state or positin- stored energy.
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