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The most common cause of Mental Retardation is:
prenatal factors
What are the three diagnostic criteria for Mental
1) Significantly subaverage intellectual functioning (70 or
2) Concurrent deficits or impairments in adaptive
functioning in at least two areas (e.g., self care, social skills)
3) Onset prior to age 18
Name the four degrees of severity of Mental Retardation,
and the corresponding IQ score ranges for each.
Mild (IQ 50-55 to 70)
Moderate (IQ 35-40 to 50-55)
Severe (IQ 20-25 to 35-40)
Profound (IQ below 20-25)
What are common comorbid diagnoses you may see with
Mental Retardation?
Mood Disorders
Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Stereotypic Movement Disorder
Mental Disorder Due to GMC
A)Name the various causes of Mental Retardation.
B)How frequent is each cause? (i.e., give a percent)
Heredity: 5%
Early alterations in embryonic development: 30%
Pregnancy and perinatal problems: 10%
GMC's in infancy or childhood: 5%
Environmental factors and other mental disorders: 15 to 20%
Unknown etiology: 30-40%
A) PKU can be detected at birth by a blood test, and its
symptoms prevented by a diet that is ___________.
B) Name the three main consequences of untreated PKU.
A) low in phenylalanine
B) irreversible moderate to profound retardation
impaired motor and language development
unpredictable and erratic behaviors
Down Syndrome is also known as _____ and is due to the
presence of ______.
Trisomy 21, an extra chromosome.
Down syndrome is estimated to be the cause of about _____% of all cases of moderate to severe retardation.
10 to 30%
What do treatment approaches for children with Mental Retardation emphasize?
Providing education and training that enhance the skills
needed to live productively and independently.
If a person has an IQ of 73, with deficits in adaptive functioning, what would be the most appropriate diagnosis?
While Borderline Intellectual Functioning is typically
associated with an IQ between 71 and 84, Mild Mental
Retardation is the most appropriate diagnosis when a
person's IQ is between 71 and 75, with substantial deficits in
adaptive functioning.
A Learning Disorder is defined as when achievement is
'substantially below' that which is expected given age,
schooling, and intelligence.
"Substantially below" is usually defined as a discrepancy of
___ standard deviations between achievement and IQ test
Two or more
____ is the most frequent comorbid disorder in individuals
with Learning Disorder.
20 to 25% of children with Learning Disorders also have
Which of the following has been found to be helpful in the
treatment of Learning Disorders?
Because children with learning disabilities often have peer
relationship problems, training in social-cognitive skills is
Which of the following are Learning Disorders?
a) Stuttering
b) Mathematics Disorder
c) Disorders of Written Expression
d) Reading Disorder
b), c) and d) are all Learning Disorders.
A promising treatment method for older children with
Stuttering is the _______ method.
The regulated breathing method has been found to be a
treatment for older children who stutter.
It involves reassuring the individual he can speak without
stuttering, and incorporates breathing and vocalization
exercises and graded speech assignments.
Which of the following is NOT a criteria for a diagnosis of
a) Qualitative impairment in social interaction
b) Qualitative impairment in writing
c) Restricted, repetitive and stereotyped behavior, interests
and activities
d) all of the above are criteria
b) Qualitiative impairment in communication is a criteria for
a diagnosis of Autism.
A diagnosis of Autism requires that abnormal functioning in
social interaction, communication, or symbolic or
imaginative play develops prior to age ___.
Autism is about _____ times more common in ____.
Autism is about four to five times more common in males
than females.
About ___ of individuals with Autism achieve some degree
of partial independence as adults.
About ___% of people with Autism are mentally retarded.
The earliest signs of Autism are _____.
A lack of normal responding to caregivers
Which of the following are associated with a better prognosis
for children with Autism?
a) Ability to communicate verbally by age 4
b) An IQ over 70
c) Earlier onset of symptoms
d) b and c
B) An IQ over 70, ability to communicate verbally by age 5
or 6, and a later onset of symptoms are all associated with a
better prognosis for children with Autism.
In temrs of etiology, Autism has been linked to a number of
_______, the most common of which are ______.
Neurological factors; reduced cerebellum and enlarged
____________ have been found to be most effective in
icreasing communication skills in children with Autism.
and discrimination training have been found to be most
effective in this population.
Autistic children have been found to be relatively strong in
_____ processing, which has led to the development of
educational interventions that emphasize the use of
visual; visual structures and cues
Autistic Disorder is one subcategory of Pervasive
Developmental Disorders (PDD). Another PDD is Rett's
Disorder, which involves a characteristic pattern of
symptoms following a period of normal development for
_____ months or more.
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of Rett's
a) Head growth acceleration
b) loss of purposeful head skills and development of
stereotypical hand movements
c) impairments in gait or trunk coordination
d) severely impaired language development
a) Rett's Disorder is characterized by head growth
Rett's Disorder is ____ times more common in females
Rett's Disorder has been reported only in females.
In __________ Disorder, there is a distinct pattern of
developmental regression in at least two areas of functioning
(e.g., motor skills, play, social skills) following at least ____
of apparently normal development.
a) Asperger's Disorder, 1 year
b) Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, 1 year
c) Asperger's Disorder, 2 years
d) Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, 2 years
Which of the following is true about Asperger's Disorder?
a) Social development is not severely impaired
b) Language development is not substantially impaired
c) Cognitive development is substantially impaired
d) Self-help skills are substantially impaired
b) Language development is not impaired in children with
Asperger'S Disorder.
A diagnosis of ADHD requires:
a) Onset of symptoms prior to age 6
b) Persistence of symptoms for at least three months
c) Some degree of impairment in at least one setting, as
observed by at least two people
d) None of the above
d) ADHD requires an onset of symptoms prior to age 7,
persistence of symptoms for at least six months, and some
degree of impairement in at least two settings.
A co-diagnosis of ________ is very common in children
with ADHD, to the extent that some experts believe these
two conditions are the same disorder.
Conduct Disorder is
very common.
Up to ___% of children continue to have symptoms of
ADHD as adults.
The prognosis for children with ADHD is poorest for those
who have a co-diagnosis of Conduct Disorder, a low IQ, and
parents with severe mental disorders.
Which of the following brain abnormalities have been linked
to ADHD?
a) Reduced activity in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia
b) Malfunction in the right hemisphere
c) Smaller than normal caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and
prefrontal cortex
d) All of the above
Barkley (1990) proposed that the core feature of ADHD is an
inability to regulate one's behavior to fit situational demands.
This is known as:
The behavioral disinhibition hypothesis
With regard to the activity levels of people with ADHD,
which of the following has been found to be true?
a) People with ADHD may have trouble increasing their
level of activity to appropriate levels
b) People with ADHD may have trouble decreasing their
level of activity to appropriate levels
c) People with ADHD may have trouble increasing and
decreasing their level of activity to appropriate levels
d) People with ADHD have no trouble increasing and
decreasing their level of activity to appropriate levels
_____ are a class of drugs that have been used to treat
ADHD since the 1930's, and have had beneficial effects on
its core symptoms in about __% of cases.
Stimulants; 75%
The effects of stimulants in treating ADHD symptoms are
said to be "dose dependent." This means:
Greater reductions in overactivity are associated with
higher doses, while improved attention is associated with
lower doses
___________ have been observed in 30 to 70% of
hyperactive children taking stimulant drugs
Motor and Vocal Tics.
Another class of drugs used to treat ADHD are the _______.
Tricyclic Antidepressants.
These drugs are similar to CNS stimulants in terms of
benefits, and may be useful when stimulants are
contraindicated because of adverse side effects.
Which of the following is true regarding treatment
interventions for ADHD?
a) Pharmacotherapy is the optimal form of treatment
b) Psychosocial interventions is the optimal form of
c) There is some evidence that pharmacotherapy, in
combination with psychosocial interventions, result in better
outcomes than either treatment alone
d) There is considerable evidence that pharmacotherapy, in
combination with psychosocial interventions, result in better
outcomes than either treatment alone
What is the most accurate statement concerning parental
involvement in the treatment of ADHD?
a) It is helpful, but not seen as particularly important
b) It is seen as important
c) It is not seen as relevant
d) It has not been adequetely studied
b) Parental involvement is considered an important part of
the treatment for ADHD.
The diagnosis of Conduct Disorder requires the presence of
at least three characteristic symptoms during the past 12
months. Symptoms are divided into four categories.
Which of the following is NOT a symptom category?
a) aggression to people and animals
b) destruction of property
c) deceitfulness or theft
d) All of the above are symptom categories
d) All of the above are symptom categories.
Additionally, serious violation of rules is a symptoms
category of Conduct Disorder.
There are two subtypes of Conduct Disorder. When the onset
of symptoms is prior to age 10, _____ is diagnosed.
Childhood-Onset Type
The two subtypes of Conduct Disorder are
Childhood-Onset Type and _______:
Adolescent-Onset Type
Moffit (1993) distinguishes between two types of Conduct
Disorder that differ in terms of onset, symptom severity and
etiology, They are:
Life-course-persistent type and Adolescence-limited type The life-course-persistent type begins early, with
symptoms sometimes apparent by age three, and involves a
pattern of increasingly serious transgressions that continues
into adulthood.
By contrast, the adolescence-limited type is a temporary
form of antisocial behavior that reflects a maturity gap
between the adolescent's biological maturation and lack of
opportunities for adult privileges and rewards.
Which of the followng is true about treatment for Conduct
a) Treatment is best targeted at children once they reach
b) Treatment can be directed at children either in
pre-adolescence or adolescence, with equal effectiveness
c) Preadolescence is the optimal time for intervention
d) None of the above
c) Interventions that target preadolescents (versus
adolescents) are most effective
Which form(s) of family interventions are commonly
associated with treatment of Conduct Disorder?
Parent management training
Multisystemic treatment
A 7 year old child argues often with his parents, is quick to
lose his temper, and is defiant of the rules when playing
games with his friends. What is the most accurate diagnosis
for this child?
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
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