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 something having merely the form or appearance of a certain thing, without possessing its substance or proper qualities’
  Most physical tools (hammers, levers, screw presses, and so on) are objects that allow humans to increase the physical force they can exert, or to apply it in a more convenient way. Such tools are often referred to as machines.
the period of the Enlightenment, Europe's great Age of Reason
The 17th and 18th centuries
some animating spark, some vital force, that would enable them to act intelligently and purposefully on their own.
He believed that the mind and the body are completely different kinds of thing
artificial intelligence
Boolean algebra
a mathematical account of logical thinking
cybernetics attempts to
find the common elements in the functioning of automatic machines and of the
human nervous system, and to develop a theory that will cover the entire field of
control and communication in machines and in living organisms.
a process in which all or part of the output of a system is passed back to become its input.
negative feedback
Negative feedback occurs when the output of a system acts to oppose changes to the input of the system
Symbolic AI,
an approach to the goal of building intelligent machines that has certain specific assumptions and strategies. 
approaches to symbolic AI
Search. Machines can locate the answer to a problem by sifting systematically through all possible answers and selecting the correct (or the best) one. 
Intelligent computer systems contain a model, in some logical or mathematical form, of the problem being solved, or of their environment. These models are thus essentially symbolic, consisting, as they do, of logical expressions.
  Computer systems can find ‘intelligent’ answers to complex problems by searching among all possible answers for the best one.
natural intelligence
The intelligence of animals
Turing Test
Turing’s game,
weak artificial intelligence
  The aim is to build computer systems with recognisable, if limited, intelligent behaviour.
strong artificial intelligence
  according to strong AI, the computer is not merely a tool in the study of the mind; rather, the appropriately programmed computer really is a mind.
Tokens may be simple or complex
starting state.
This is a certain disposition of tokens with which the system is set up at the beginning of play
From this starting state, the tokens can be manipulated according to a set of rules. Each rule allows the system to move into a new state
for a formal system to work at all it must be possible to read and write tokens successfully.
a token must be read and written with absolute success
  the system must have an extremely high likelihood of success in reading and writing tokens
It does not matter what the tokens are made of, or how the system is realised physically
a closed world
finitely playable
In any state of the systrem a player must be able to
  1. deduce whether every possible move is legal or not;
  2. find at least one legal move, or be certain that there are none
‘a set of steps for arriving at a certain result’.
it is guaranteed to provide the expected result, provided it is followed correctly.
it must be able to reach the result in a finite number of steps
automatic formal system
one that works by itself, without any outside intervention
Principle of Automation
Whenever the legal moves of a formal system are fully determined by algorithms, then that system can be automated.

deterministic systems
a large number of moves, all perfectly legal, to choose from

where only one legal move is available in each state
A heuristic means, roughly, a rule of thumb or a guide in the investigation or solution of a problem.

operational semantics  

The only meaning it has within the formal system is the characteristic moves it is allowed to make

 symbols having denotational semantics
 standing for real things
  of tokens to numbers
  Every rule that operates on a certain state of the system that is true under a certain interpretation should produce a new state that is also true under that interpretation
Considering the computer running a program as a formal system: the tokens
  The tokens are the various data structures of the program, distributed across the memory of the machine. These data structures may just be individual bits, or variables, or complex structures such as arrays or objects (or arrays of objects, and so on).
the start state
  The start state is the initialisation of these data structures to their starting values, or defaults.
the rules
  The rules are embodied in the program, a finite algorithm that specifies exactly how the tokens are to be read and written, and in what order these read/write operations are to take place.
it deals only in 1s and 0s,
medium independant
Could be made of anything
Finitely playable
  the programs computers run are, without exception, algorithmic.
  automatic formal system
it runs itself
interpreted system
  Computers are tools that we use for our own real-world purposes. What they do, and the results they produce, have a meaning for us.
a simplified picture of reality
  a model that captures the functional connections between inputs and outputs of the system;
  a model that captures the functional connections between inputs and outputs of the system and is based on processes that are the same as, or similar to, those of the real-world system
  a model that captures the functional connections between inputs and outputs of the system, based on processes that are the same as, or similar to, those of the natural system, and in the same materials as the natural system.
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