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Define upper airway.
Everything superior to the vocal cords. Non-sterile.
Three main functions of the nose.
1. Filter particles with cilia and mucus.

2. Warms the air to body temperature.

3. Humidifies air by increasing temperature.
Three negatives to mouth breathers.
1. Does not filter air.

2. Does not warm air.

3. Does not humidify air.
Describe bronchioles.
Generation 10-15.
Describe main stem bronchi.
Generation 1.
Fluid that lines internal alveolar surface and decreases surface tension.
Describe lobar bronchi.
Mucocilliary escalator begins here with cilia and mucus producing glands. Left lung has two, right lung has three. Generation 2.
Describe segmental bronchi.
Left lung has eight, right has 10. Generation 3.
Describe respiratory bronchioles.
Generation 17-19.
Describe alveolar ducts.
Generation 20-24.
Partial pressure of O2 in arterial blood.
Describe Lungs.
The Left lung has two lobes and eight segments. The Right lung has three lobes and ten segments.
What percentage of O2 is in room air?
Describe internal intercostals.
Provides for active expiration. The pull ribs down and out.
Describe the epiglottis.
Covers trachea during swallowing to prevent aspiration.
Describe pleura.
A moist membrane found in the thorax. The parietal pleura lines the rib cage and the visceral pleura lines the lungs.
Describe alveolar/capillary (AC) membrane.
Allows for gas exchange between alveoli and capillaries.
Bicarbonate - is produced by the kidneys to maintain pH.
Factors that negatively effect gas exchange.
1. decreased hemoglobin.

2. increased space between alveoli and capillary due to edema.

3. decreased erythrocytes due to anemia.

4. decreased alveolar surface area due to scar tissue and disease.
Partial pressure of O2 in the alveoli.
Describe accessory muscles.
Known as the sternocleidomastoid and scalene, they are located near the top of shoulder.
Fluid that decreases amount of negative pressure required to overcome surface tension.
Colorless, Odorless and Tasteless Gas.
O2 is combustible. True or False.
O2 supports combustion but is not independently combustible.
Define partial pressure.
Pressure that is exerted by a single gas in a mixture.
Partial pressure of O2 in venous blood.
Saturation - amount of O2 carried on the hemoglobin compared to what it is capable of.
Describe diaphragm.
The major muscle of respiration. Innervated by the phrenic nerve at C2.
Number of binding sites on a hemoglobin.
6 total. 4 O2, 2 Fe.
Describe alveolar sacs.
Generation 25.
Arterial blood gas.
What 5 things does an ABG measure?
PaO2, PaCO2, pH, Sat and HCO3 levels.
Partial pressure of CO2 in venous blood.
FiO2 of room air.
Barometric pressure.
Pb at sea level
760 mmHg
Describe external intercostals.
Work with the diaphragm during inspiration. They pull ribs up and out, not used at rest.
What is the formula to calculate PO2 in room air
PO2 = Pb x FiO2
Movement of air.
Process by which O2 crosses the A/C membrane and is exchanged with exhaled CO2.
Describe sub-segmental bronchi.
Generation 4-9.
When blood circulates throughout the lungs they become?
Partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood.
Steps of diffusion at the tissue level.
1. O2 transported in blood

2. O2 reaches tissue

3. O2 is deposited into the mitochondria of the tissue cell
Molecular weight of O2.
32 grams
Fractional concentration of inspired O2, expressed as a percentage.
Fluid that keeps alveoli from collapsing.
Respiration occurs when?
The gases O2 and CO2 are exchanged at the A/C membrane.
Volume of gas still in our lungs at the end of a normal resting exhalation.
Functional Residual Capacity - FRC
Define  lower airway.
Everything inferior to the vocal cords.
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