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attributions
Process of assigning causes to things that happen.
bipolar disorder with a seasonal pattern
Bipolar disorder with recurrences in particular seasons of the year.
bipolar disorders
Mood disorders in which a person experiences both manic and depressive moods.
bipolar I disorder
A form of bipolar disorder in which the person experiences both manic episodes and major depressive episodes.
bipolar II disorder
A form of bipolar in which the person experiences both hypomanic episodes and major depressive episodes.
chronic major depressive disorder
A disorder in which a major depressive episode does not remit over a two year period.
cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) (cognitive therapy)
Therapy based on altering dysfunction thoughts and cognitive distortions.
cyclothymic disorder
Mild mood disorder characterized by cyclical periods of hypomanic and depressive symptoms.
depression
Emotional state characterized by extraordinary sadness and dejection.
depressogenic schemas
Dysfunctional beliefs that are rigid, extreme, and counterproductive and that are thought to leave one susceptible to depression and experiencing stress.
double depression
The condition is diagnosed when a person with dysthymia has a superimposed major depressive episode.
dysfunctional beliefs
Negative beliefs that are rigid, extreme, and counterproductive. Negative beliefs that are rigid, extreme, and counterproductive.
dysthymic disorder
Moderately severe mood disorder characterized by a persistently depressed mood most of the day for more days that not for at least 2 years.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
Use of electricity to produce convulsions and unconsciousness; a treatment used primarily to alleviate depressive and manic episodes.
hypomanic episode
A condition lasting at least 4 days in which a person experiences abnormally elevated, expansive or irritable mood.
learned helplessness
A theory that animals and people exposed to uncontrollable aversive events learn that they have no control over these events and this causes them to behave in a passive and helpless manner when later exposed to potentially controllable events. Later extended to become a theory of depression.
major depressive disorder
Moderate to severe mood disorder in which a person experiences only major depressive episodes, but no hypomanic, manic, or mixed episode.
major depressive episode
A mental condition in which a person must be marked depressed for most of every day for most days for at least 2 weeks.
major depressive episode with atypical features
A type of major depressive episode which includes a pattern of symptoms characterized by marked mood reactivity, as well as at least 2 out of 4 other designated symptoms.
major depressive episode with catatonic features
A type of major depressive episode which includes marked symptoms of loss of interest or pleasure in almost all activities, plus at least 3 of 6 other designated symptoms.
mania
Emotional state characterized by intense and unrealistic feelings of excitement and euphoria.
manic episode
A condition in which a person shows markedly  elevated, euphoric, or expansive mood, often interrupted by occasional outbursts of intense irritability or even violence that lasts for at least 1 week. In addition at least 3 out of 7 other designated symptoms must also occur.
mixed episode
A condition in which a person is characterized by symptoms of both full-blown manic and major depressive episodes for at least 1 week, whether the symptoms are intermixed or alternate rapidly every few day.
mood disorders
Disturbances of mood that are intense and persistent enough to be clearly maladaptive.
mood-congruent delusions
Delusions or hallucinations that are consistent with a person's mood.
negative automatic thoughts
Thoughts that are just below the surface of awareness and that involve unpleasant pessimistic predictions.
negatives cognitive triad
Negative thoughts about the self, the world, and the future.
pessimistic attributional style
Cognitive style involving a tendency to make internal, stable, and global attributions for negative life events.
rapid cycling
A pattern of bipolar disorder involving at least four manic or depressive episodes per year.
recurrence
A new occurrence of a disorder after a remission of symptom.
relapse
Return of the symptoms of a disorder after a fairly short period of time.
seasonal affective disorder
Mood disorder involving at least two episodes of depression in the past two years occurring at the same time of year, with remission also occurring at the same time if year.
severe major depressive episode with psychotic features
Major depression involving loss of contact with reality, often in the form of delusions or hallucinations.
specifiers
Different patterns of symptoms that sometimes characterize major depressive episodes which may help predict the course and preferred treatments for the condition.
suicide
Taking one's own life.
unipolar depressive disorder
Mood disorder in which a person experiences only depressive episodes.
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