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what is americas top killer
heart disease
what is conjestive heart failure
left sided heart failure
what are the corinary arteries
they branch off the aorta and supply the heart with blood, and are offten associated with cardiac emergencies
what is a thrombus
clots that are formed in the vessels to stop bleeding
how do vessels get blocked
platlets, throbin (protein that causes a trombus), and fibrin (what makes the thrombus stronger) build up on a site where plaque may have built up and slowly start to block the vessel
what type of tissues make up the heart
conductive (generates electrical pulses) and contractile
what is the SA node AKA pacemaker
it generates the hearts electrical impulse, and it is located at the right atrium, it travels though the atria by way of the bachmans bundle, then travels to the AV node
what is the AV node
it causes the ventricles to contract by way of the intranodal tract, which is between the atria and the ventricles
where does the impluse travel after it hits the AV node
it is inhibited for a short time to allow blood to enter the ventricles and then travels down the bundle of his to the right and left bundle braches
where does the impulse travel after it hits the bundle of his
travels to the purkinje fibers that are embeded in the ventricles causing them to contact simultaineously causing the blood to move
what happens when the corinary arterys are partially or completly blocked
they start to "send off" impulses, these are known as "dysrhythmias" this may lead to sudden death
what is another word for hypoprofusion
shock, a state of profound depression of cell perfusion
what might pateints be given if they are elegible for clot busting drugs
Fibrinolytics and anti platlet agents, and a mechanical treatment of angioplasty
what is arteriosclerosis
where the become stiff and less elastic, this may come from atherosclerosis, which is a narrowing of the arteries from fatty buildup
are death rates higher in male or female that suffer heart attacks
females they are twice as likley to die from them, because they are usually older when they have them
what ages do you not apply an AED
1 year and younger, only preform CPR
what is the percentage of a heart attack while someone is excercising
10-15% they normally occur at rest and during normal activities, or during a strong emotional event
what is levine's sign
a clenched fist over the pateints chest, and is usually with a dull, crushing pain like something is sitting on their chest
where might the pain radiate
to their arms (most likley the left)shoulders, jaw, epigastrum, neck, or back
what are the indications for nitro
pt has chest pain
patient is perscribed
has online approval
what are the contraindications for nitro
1. the pt has a systolic BP of less than 90 or 30 less than the baseline BP
2. the HR is less than 50 bpm or over 100 bpm
3. the pt has a suspected head injury
4. the pt is an infant or child
5. three doses have already been taken
6. the pt is tsaking an ED drug (cialis, levetra, or viagra) in the last 24 hours
what is the mg for a nitro tablet
3 or 4 mg
what is the time frame between doses
3-5 mins between doses
when do you preform a reassessment for nitro
2 mins after dose
what are the actions of nitro
dialates the vessels
decreses workload of hrt
decreases cardiac oxygen demand
what are the side afects of nitro
headache, drop in BP, changes in pulse rate
what are some trade names for nitro
nitrostat
nitrobid
nitrolingual spray
what type of pain might nitro produce under the tounge
a stinging or burning pain
what are some trade names for aspirin
ASA, bayer, ecotrin, st josephs's, bufferin
what are the indications of aspirin
chest discomfort
on line approval
what is the contraindications to aspirin
the pt is allergic
what is the dosage of asprin
160-325 mg
what is the action of aspirin
it produces a rapid anti-platlet affect, it will also reduce a coronary reoclusion
what are the side affect of aspirin
stomach discomfort
ideally when should CPR start on a patient in cardiac arrest
within 2 mins
what are the percentages of survival when you have Defibrilation within 3-5 mins
49-75% it drops about 7-10% every min
what is the most frequent inital rythym in cardiac patients
v-fib
what is ventricle tachycardia
it is generated in the ventricle instead of the SA node, which could then turn into v-fib
if the pt has a transdermal patch for medication on what do you do before ventilation
remove it and wipe the medication off
if the pt has a pacemaker how far do you have to be from it to place the pad
at least 1 inch to the side
how long does angina typically last for
2-15 mins
what if all 3 of the doses of nitro has been sprayed and it has been longer than 10 mins
you need to transport thinking it is a heart attack
what are some differences between angina and a MI
MI will usually result in perspiration, pallor, nausea, weakness, dizziness, and light headedness where angina wont, and extremes in weather, exertion, stress, and meals will trigger angina, where MI wont
what is the P wave
corresponds to the contraction of the atria
what is the QRS complex
correlates the ventricles contracting
what is the T wave
represents preparation or relaxtion to the next series of complexes
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