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Anatomical Position
an individual stands upright with the feet parallel in flat floor
Terms of direction 

 Ex. the lungs are inferior to the brain
 toward the front
the heart is anterior to the spinal cord
toward the medline of the body
 Ex. the nose is medial to the external ear
away from the medline of the body
 Ex.the external ear is lateral to the nose
nearer the trunk of the body or point of attachment ex. the shoulder is proximal to the wrist
farther from the trunk of the body point or point of attachment.
Ex. the wrist is distal to the shoulder
Regional terms
sagittal(media) plane
slices an object down the middle, making a left half and right half.
frontal plane
the term coronal means "crown" this plane splits and object into a front half and back half
transverse(horizontal plane)
this plane divides the body into an upper half and lower half.
Body cavities 
Cranial cavity
Vertebral cavity
Consist of the cranial and vertebral cavities
Contains the brain
Contains the spinal cord
Ventral body Cavity
Consist of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
Thoracic Cavity
contains the heart and the lungs
median comparment of the thoracic cavity
Pleural cavity
pericardial cavity
fluid filled space around the lungs
fluid filled space around the heart
abdominopelvic cavity
abdominal cavity
pelvic cavity
consist of the abdominal and pelvic cavities.
contain digestive organs kidneys and uteres. 
contains the urinary bladder, internalreproductive organs and rectum.
Serous Membrane
are double layered fluid filled sacs that surround organs like the heart and lungs
parietal pericardium(serous membrane)
outermost layer of the serous membrane around the heart
Visceral pericardium(serous membrane)
innermost layer of the serous membrane around the heart
Pericardial Cavity (serous membrane)
fluid filled space between the parietal and viceral pericardium
parietal pleura(serous membrane)
outermost layered of the serous membrane around the lungs
visceral pleura(serous membrane)
innermost layer of the serous membrane around the lungs
pleural cavity(serous membrane)
fluid filled space between the parietal and visceral pleura
The four principal type of tissue in the body
Epithelium tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue.
Epithelium Tissue
Function covers surface; lines inside of organs and body cavities.
cellular, pollar, attached, avascular, innervated, high regeneration capacity.
Connective tissue
Function protects binds together and support organs.
Diverse types;all contain cells, protein fibers, and ground substance.
Muscle tissue
facilitates movement of skeleton or organ walls.
contractile receives stimulation from nervous system and edocrine system.
Nervous Tissue
Neurons: control activities,process information
Glial Cells :support and protect neurons.
 characteristics: Neurons Excitable ,high metabolic rate,extreme longevity, nonmitotic.
Glial cells  nonexcitable, mitotic.
Simple squamous epithelium
one layer of flattened cells.
rapid diffusion, filtration, and some secretion in serous membrane.
lines internal surface of ventral body cavities, blood vessels, and heart; parts kidney tubules;alveoli of the lungs.
Simple cuboidal
is a single row of the cube shaped cells
absorption; secretion
Ducts of the glands, parts of kidney tubules; follicles of thyroid gland.
Simple Columnar epithelium 
Structure appears as a single layer of tall, column shaped cells. they are two types ciliated non-ciliate.
is absortion; secretion of mucus, enzyme, and other substances; movement of mocus by cilia.
ciliated type uterine tubes. Non-ciliated stomach, small intestines, large intestines, gallbladder.
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
one layer of cells varying heights ; al cells atach to the basement membrane; ciliated form contains cilia and goblet cells; nonciliated form lack cilia and goblet cells.
Simple epithelium
one cell layer thick all cells are tightly and all cells attach directly to the basement membrane
Connective tissue
characteristics primarily give structural support to other tissue and organs in the body. all composed of protein, fibers, and ground substance.
physical protection,support and structural framework, binding of structures storage
trasnport, immune protection.
Loose connective tissue
they are three types of loose connective tissues Areolar,Adipose, and reticular connective tissue.
have fewer fibers than other connective tissue and serve as protective padding in the body.
beneath epithelial tissues all over the body; skin skeletal muscles surround blood vessels within the skin around joints.
cushions and protects organs.
Areolar connective tissue
fibroblast; lesser amounts of collagen and elastic fibers viscous ground substance
binds and packs around organs
 surrounding nerves,vessels subcutaneous layer
Adipose connective tissue
is known as fat is a loose connective tissue composed of cells adipocytes
protects, store fat insulate
subcutaneas layer; surrounding kidneys
Reticular connective tissue
meshwork of the reticular fibers 
forms stroma of the lymphatic organs
stroma of spleen,liver, lymph nodes bone marrow.
Dense connective tissue
higher proportion of fibers to ground substance; protein fibers densely packed together.
Dense regular  Connective tissue
structure densely packed collagen fibers are parallel to direction of stress.
provides great stregth and flexibility primarily in a single direction
Location tendons and ligaments
dense irregular connective tissue
Densely packed collagen fibers are parallel to direction of stress.
provides tensil stregth in all directions.
dermis; capsules of organs
Elastic connective tissue
elastic and collagen fibers are arranged irregularly
provides framework and suport organs
walls of large arteries
Elastic fibers
are like ruber bands, because they allow stretching and recoiling in a tissue.

Collagen Fibers
are like steel cables on a suspension bridge because they give streght to a tissue
The ground substance
the ground substance varies in consistency from being a gelatin - like to a much more rigid material.
Stratum Basale
is the deepest layer of the epidermis
Stratum spinosum
are several layer of of polygonal keratinocytes
Stratum Granulosum
Consist of three or five layers of keratinocytes superficial to the stratum spinosum
Stratum Lucidum
is a thin traslucent region about two or three layers thick that is superficial to the stratum granulosum
Stratum Corneum
is the most superficial layer of the epidermis
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