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Blood type A has ___ antigents, which means that a person with this blood type naturally produces antibodies against blood type(s) ___; type A is thus compatible with...
  • A
  • B
  • A, O

Blood type B has ___ antigents, which means that a person with this blood type naturally produces antibodies against blood type(s) ___; type B is thus compatible with...
  • B
  • A
  • B, O
Blood type AB has ___ antigents, which means that a person with this blood type naturally produces antibodies against blood type(s) ___; type AB is thus compatible with...
  • A, B
  • None
  • A, B, AB, O
Blood type O has ___ antigents, which means that a person with this blood type naturally produces antibodies against blood type(s) ___; type O is thus compatible with...
  • No
  • A, B
  • O
Rh+ blood given to an Rh- person will cause ___ becuase Rh+ blood contains the ___ antigen while Rh- blood contains antibodies against this antigen.
  • Heymolysis
  • D
Hemochromatosis
A disorder that results in too much iron being absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract
Polycythemia vera
A bone marrow disease that leads to an abnormal increase in the number of blood cells (primarily red blood cells)
CABG
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery
Thrombocytopenia
Deficiency of platelets in the blood; this causes bleeding into the tissues, bruising, and slow blood clotting after injury
Packed RBCs are usually prescribed for clients w/ a Hgb of less than ___.
8 g/dL
Excessive blood loss (Hgb 6-10 g/dL) indicates a need for what kind of blood transfusion?
Whole blood
Anemia (Hgb 6-10 g/dL) and chronic renal failure indicate a need for what blood component?
Packed RBCs
Coagulation factor deficiencies (hemophilia) indicate a need for what blood component?
Fresh flozen plasma
Thrombocytopenia/platelet dysfunction (platelets <20,000 or <80,000 while actively bleeding) indicate a need for what blood component?
Platelets
Hgb levels should rise by ___ with each unit of blood transfused.
~1 g/dL
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
A complex systemic thrombohemorrhagic disorder involving the generation of intravascular fibrin and the consumption of procoagulants and platelets. The resultant clinical condition is characterized by intravascular coagulation and hemorrhage
Hemoglobinuria
Presence of hemoglobin in the urine
Urticaria
A rash of round, red welts on the skin that itch intensely, sometimes with dangerous swelling, caused by an allergic reaction, typically to specific foods
Orthopnea
Form of dyspnea in which the person can breathe comfortably only when standing or sitting erect; associated with asthma and emphysema and angina pectoris
If DIC occurs from blood transfustion-related sepsis, one nursing action may be to administer activated protein C (Xigris), which does what?
Reduces the production of thrombin, which controls the inflammatory response
Hemoglobin
An iron-containing protein present in the blood of many animals that, in vertebrates, carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body and carries carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs
Hematocrit
The ratio of red blood cells to the total volume of blood
G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase) deficiency anemia
In people with G6PD deficiency, either the RBCs do not make enough G6PD or what is produced cannot properly function. Without enough G6PD to protect the RBCs (from potentially harmful byproducts that can accumulate when a person takes certain medications or when the body is fighting an infection), RBCs can be damaged or destroyed; hemolytic anemia occurs
List 3 vitamins/mineral deficiencies that are related to anemia.
  • Iron
  • B12
  • Folate
These 2 vitamins are needed for the production of RBCs.  When deficient, a result can be pernicious (megaloblastic) anemia.
B12, folate
Aplastic anemia
Deficiency of all types of blood cells caused by failure of bone marrow development
List a common physical assessment finding seen with a B12 deficiency.
Smooth, sore, bright red tongue
RBC indices
Part of the CBC test. They are used to help diagnose the cause of anemia. They include:
  • MCV
  • MCH
  • MCHC
MCV (mean corpuscular volume)
Size of RBCs; normo-, micro-, macrocytic
MCH (mean corpuscular Hgb)
Amount of Hgb per RBC; normo-, hypochromic
MCHC (mean corpuscular Hgb concentration)
Hgb amount relatie to size of cell
List 2 possible causes of normal RBC indices.
  • Acute blood loss
  • Sickle-cell
List 3 causes of decreased RBC indices.
  • Iron-deficiency
  • Anemia of chronic illness
  • Chronic blood loss
List 2 causes of increased RBC indices.
  • B12 deficiency
  • Folate deficiency
TIBC (total iron-binding capacity)
Indirect measurment of serum transferrin (a protein that binds w/ iron and transports to storage)
Serum ferritin is an indicator of...
total iron stores in the body
(Low/High) serum iron and (low/high) TIBC indicates iron-deficiency anemia.
Low; high
What is Hgb electophoresis and what is it used to detect?
Separates normal from abnormal Hgb; detects thalassemia and sickle-cell disease
Thalassemia
Any of a group of hereditary hemolytic diseases caused by faulty hemoglobin synthesis, widespread in Mediterranean, African, and Asian countries
What does a Shilling test measure?  What does it differentiate between?
B12 absorption w/ and w/out IF; malabsorption and pernicious anemia
Bone-marrow examination is used to diagnose ___ anemia.
aplastic
Vitamin ___ may increase oral iron absorption.
C
Iron supplements should be taken (during/between) meals to increase absorption.
between
List 3 iron supplements.
  • Ferrous sulfate (Feosol)
  • Ferrous fumarate (Feostat)
  • Ferrous gluconate (Fergon)
T/F Parenteral iron supplements (iron dextran) are only given for severe anemia.
True
Administer parenteral iron using the ___ method.
Z-track
Epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit) is an ___.  What does it do?
erythropoietin; increases RBC production
With erythropoetin, it's important to monitor the patient for ___ event if Hgb increases too rapidly (>1 gm/dL/2 weeks).
cardiac
___ is necessary to convert folic acid from its inactive to active form.
B12
All cells rely on ___ for DNA production.
folate
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