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Matter
Anything that occupies space and has mass
Mass
The amount of matter in an object
Weight
The gravitational force acting on an object of a given mass
Elements
The simplest type of matter with unique chemical properties
Atoms
Smallest particle of an element that has chemical characteristics of that element
Molecule
when 2 or more atoms are joined together by a chemical bond (may be composed of atoms of only one element or may be a compound)
Compound
a molecule containing 2 or more elements in combination
Atoms are composed of the following subatomic particles.
Neutrons: no electrical charge
Protons: positive charge
Electrons: negative charge
Nucleus
mass-containing part of an atom in its core
Formed by protons and neutrons
Most of volume of atom occupied by electrons
Atomic Number
Equal to number of protons in each atom which equals the number of electrons (identifies an individual element)
Mass Number
Number of protons plus number of neutrons
Isotopes
Two or more forms of same element with same number of protons and electrons but different neutron number e.g. 3 types of hydrogen Denoted by using symbol of element preceded by mass number  
Atomic Mass
Average mass of naturally occurring isotopes (gives an idea of what that element weighs, as it is normally found in nature)
Atomic Weight
the actual mass of an atom; measured in daltons or atomic mass units
Mole
6.023 x 10 23 atoms; this is a measure of the number of atoms you have;it’s used to get the right ratios of atoms when you measure out chemicals or make up solutions for chemical reactions; you can’t simply weigh things because atoms of different elements have different atomic weights – 1 gram of oxygen and 1 gram of hydrogen would equal 2 really different numbers of oxygen and hydrogen atoms
Ion
When an atom loses or gains electrons and become charged
Cation
Positively charged ion
Anion
Negatively charged ion
Ionic Bonding
one atom takes an electron and another atom gives up an electronforming a cation and an anion; the cations and anions are attracted to each other
Covalent bonding
atoms share electrons as they attempt to “fill” their electron shells
Nonpolar covalent bond
atoms share electrons equally
Polar covalent bond
atoms share electrons unequally – the electrons spend more time with one of the atoms than they do with the other atom
Organic compounds
contain carbon atoms within the structure
Inorganic compounds
do not contain carbon
Energy
the capacity to do work
2 major Types
kinetic energy & potential energy
Kinetic energy
energy doing work
Potential energy
stored energy that can do work later
Work
moves matter
Heat energy
a measure of molecular motion; more motion = more heat; less motion = less heat; heat is measured by temperature; a type of kinetic energy
Chemical energy
energy stored in chemical bonds that can be released when the bonds are broken; a type of potential energy
Electrical energy
energy generated by movement of charged particles due to attraction between opposite charges; a type of kinetic energy
Chemical Reactions
occur when chemical bonds between atoms are formed or broken
basic types of chemical reactions: Decomposition
bonds are broken: AB reaction A + B e.g. an hydrolysis
basic types of chemical reaction: Synthesis
bonds are formed: A + B AB a dehydration reaction
basic types of chemical reaction: Exchange
bonds are both broken & formed and atoms are swapped between molecules: AB + CD AC + BD
Reactants
the atoms/molecules on the left side of the reaction arrow.
Products
the atoms/molecules on the right side of the reaction arrow
reversible
the reaction might occur in a left to right direction, as expected, but the reactions that would occur if you read the reaction backwards, from right to left, can also occur at the same time. This is indicated by arrows going in both directions or by a double-headed arrow  
Exergonic Reactions
release energy usually in the form of heat
Endergonic reactions
reactions that require more energy than they release; generally they store energy
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