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THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE OF FUNCTIONALIST
  • Society is composed of inter-related, mutually dependent parts.
  • Structures and funtions maintain a society's or group's stability, cohesion, and continuity.
  • Dysfuntional activities that threaten a society's or group's survival are controlled or eliminated.
THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE OF CONFLICT
  • Life is a continuous struggle between the "haves" and the "have nots"
  • People compete for limited resources that are controlled by a small number of powerful groups
  • Society is based on inequality in terms of ethnicity, race, social class, and gender
THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE OF FEMINIST

  • Women experience wide-spread inequality in society because, as a group, they have little power

  • Gender, ethnicity, race, age, sexual orientation, and social class-rather than a person's intelligence and ability-explain many of our social interactions and lack of access to resources

  • social change is possivle only if we change our institutional structures and our day-to-day interactions

THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE OF SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST

  • People act on the basis of the meaning they attribute fo others

  • meaning grows out of the social interaction that we have with others

  • People continuously reinterpret and reevaluate their knowledge and information in their everyday encounters

FOUNDING FATHERS IN SOCIOLOGY
  • MAX WEBER
  • AUGUSTE COMPTE
  • EMILE DURKHEIM
  • KARL MARX
INSIGHTS OF MAX WEBER
  •  social organization
  •  subjective understanding of behavior,
  • value-free sociology

INSIGHTS OF AUGUSTE COMPTE
"STUDIES MUST BE"
  • EMPIRICAL": info based on observations, experiments, or experiences rather than ideology,religion.or intuition.
  • SOCIAL STATICS:order/the same
  • SOCIAL DYNAMICS:change/differiences
INSIGHTS OF EMILE DURKHEIM
  • SOCIAL FACTS: aspects of life external of the individual
  • SOCIAL SOLIDARITY:social cohesiveness and harmony, is maintained by
  • DIVISION OF LABOR: interdependence of different tasks and occupations
  • SOCIAL INTEGRATION
INSIGHTS OF KARL MARX
  • CAPITALISM
  • CLASS CONFLICT
  • ALIENATION
WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY?
  • THE SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF SOCIAL INTERACTION AT A VARIETY OF LEVELS.
WHAT IS THEORY?
A SET OF STATEMENTS THAT EXPLAINS WHY A PHENOMENON OCCURS.
WHAT IS VERSTEHEN?

  • UNDERSTANDING

CONCEPT OF SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION
C. Wright Mills
IS THE ABILITY TO SEE THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE INDIVIDUAL LIVES AND LARGER SOCIAL INFLUENCES

  • Personal troubles(biography)

  • structural issues (public and historical)

WHAT ARE NORMS?
  • are societys specific rules of right and wrong behavior.
  • tell us what we should or should not do.
CHARACTERISTIC OF NORMS
  • Most are unwritten.
  • they are instrumental.
  • some are explicit while others are implicit.
  • they change over time.
  • most are conditional.
  • can be rigid or flexible.
THREE TYPES OF NORMS
  • FOLKWAYS: norms that members of society look upon as not being critical and that they may be bnroken without sever punishment.
  • mores: norms that society considers very improtant because they maintain morals and ethics.
  • LAWS: norms that are defined and enforced by a political authority.
WHAT IS SUI GENERIS?
  • Specific, Can not be compared.
DYSFUNCTIONAL
  • Social patterns that have a negative impact on a group or society.
MANIFEST FUNCTIONS
  • Functions that are intended and recongized; they are present and clearly evident.
LATENT FUCNTIONS
  • Functions that are unintended and unrecognized; they are present but not immediately obvious.
VALIDITY
  • The degree to which a measure is accurate and really measures what it claims to measure.
RELIABILITY
  • The consistency with which the same measure produces similar results time after time.
HYPOTHESIS
  • A statement of a relationship between two or more variables that researchers want to test.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
  • A characteristic that determines or has an effect on the dependent variable.
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
  • The outcome, which may be affected by the independent variable
VARIABLE
  • A characteristic that can change in value or magnitude under different conditions.
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  • The steps in the research prosess that include careful data collection, exact measurement, accurate recording and analysis of the findings, thoughtful interpretation of results, and, when appropriate, a generalization of the findings to a large group.
STAGES OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  • theory
  • hypotheses
  • variable
  • data
  • explanation of results

MICROSOCIOLOGY
  • The study of small-scale patterns of individuals' social interaction in specific settings
MACROSOCIOLOGY
  • The study of large-scale patterns and processes that characterize society as a whole.
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