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routes for administering Nutritional Support
  • Enteral
  • Parenteral
Enteral Nutrition
  • involves the GI tract
  • given orally or feeding tube
Parenteral Nutrition
  • administering high-caloric nutrition
  • through large veins
Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) or Hyperalimentation (HA)
  • more costly
  • higher infection rate
  • used when GI tract is not functioning
Enteral Nutrition Routes
  • oral
  • gastric by nasogastric tube
  • small intestine by nasoduodenal/nasojejunal
  • jejunostomy tube
Enteral Solutions
  • blenderized
  • polymeric (milk-based and lactose-free)
  • elemental or monomeric
Enteral Methods for Delivery
  • bolus
  • intermittent drip or infusion - q3-6h by gravity drip or pump infusion
  • continuous drip - critically ill or into small intestines
  • cyclic infusion - continuous feeding over 8-16 h
Enteral Safety
  • Aseptic technique
  • Label Enteral equipment
  • Elevate head of bed 30 degrees
  • Right Client
  • Trace all lines and tubing back to client
Enteral Medications
  • Pancreatic enzymes
Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN)
  • also called hyperalimentation
  • primary method for providing complete nutrients
  • contain water, energy, amino acids, essential fatty acids, vtamins, & minerals
Transitional Feeding: Parenteral to Enteral
  • determine GI tolerance
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