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What are the 4 popular mother board used in computers today
AT ATX BTX and NLX
Atx
is most used today , PS/2 connector
Btx
designed by intel and much larger than ATX
AT
Us an older style of motherboard has a 2 piece connector
NLX
Is the form factor is used in lowprofile case types
External Data Bus (System Bus)
connects the Cpu to the chipset (64bit)
Address Bus
Connects the RAM to the Cpu
Expansion Bus
Connects the I\O and expansion slots to the chipset
What are the two Expansion Buses categories
Internal expansion External expansion
Internal Expansion Buses
ISA PCI AGP
External Expansion Buses
Serial, Parallel and USB
ISA Bus
16(8bit) operates at 8mhz
PCI Bus
32 or 64bit operates at 33mhz
AGP Bus
32 or 64bit operates at 66mhz
PCIE Bus
Is intened to replace PCI and AGP
PCIE
1x 2x 4x 8x 16x and 32x
What is the Speed of USB 1.1
12 mbps
What is the Speed of USB 2.0
480
What is a Chipset
Set of controller chips the direct traffic between buses
Two Main Chipsets
North/South Bridge Hub Chipsets
Which of the chipset are the oldest
North/South Bridge
What does the North bridge connect to ?
connects the systembus to the other fast buses (PCI and AGP)
What does the south bridge connect to?
ISA IDE and USb
What are the Hub Set chips ?
Memory controller and I/O Hub
Memory controller Hub connects
System bus to AGP and PCI(Like the north Bridge)
I/O controller Hub connects
ISA IDE AND USB
What 3rd chipset does the North/South bridge and the Hub Chipset both share
Super I/O
Super I/O connects what ?
Legacy Parallel Serial Ports
CMOS
Complementary Metallic Oxide Semiconductor
CMOS
the cmos battery keeps the CMOS from loosing data
BIOS
Basic Input/Output System
Where is the BIOS stored?
The BIOS is held with in the the CMOS chipset
AT motherboard power supply
+5,-5 and +12,-12
ATX mother board supply
-3,+3 +5,-3 and +12,-12
How do you find the mother board wattage
Multiply volt by amps +3.3v x 0.7amps = 25
Cpu Cache
each cpu has at least 2 caches L1 and L2
WHat is L1 ?
built on the cpu it is the front side cache where the data enters
What is L2 ?
Back side cache where the data leaves
Where is the L2 located
In the cpu package but not integrated in the die
L3
Some pc have L3 that sits between the Ram and the CPU
What is the VRM
Voltage Regulator Modules-Changes the Voltage base on the CPU
What is RAM ?
Ready Access Memory
SRAM
Static RAM, holds data until the data is changed and does not need to refresh
What is DRAM
Dynamic RAM
What the diff between DRAM and SRAM
DRAM needs more signal for the constant refresh
Different types of DRAM
EDO, SDRAM and DDR SDRAM
What is SDRAM
Synchronous DRAM- Synchronized to the speed of the system bus
How many pins does the SDRAM have
168pin DIMM 184pin SIMM
What does DDR stand for ?
Double Data Rate
Why is DDR called Double Data Rate
IT reads and right on both sides up and down. So if your using DDR SDRAM with 200mhz speed it will Read/write at 400mhz.
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