Cloned from: Sociology Final

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Examples of social institutions
Other Service institutions
health care
organizations stabilized over time to meet certain needs in society
Functions of the Family
Primary function is to provide care
Structural Functionalist perspective
:how the family meets its needs and contributes to social stability; how the family and larger society are linked
*The family has six paramount functions
*The family needs the help of other institutions in society to meet these functions and other needs
6 paramount functions of the family (Functionalist View)

1. Reproduction
2. Protection
3. Socialization
4. Regulation of Sexual behavior
5. Affection and companionship
6. Provision of social status (resources and roles)
Assumptions of Conflict perspective on Family
Focus: how the family perpetuates ineqaulity in society and how it can contribute to changing these inequalities
1. Inequalities within the family contributes to perpetuating inequalities in society
2. Egalitarian relationships within the family can contribute to changing inequalities in society (androgeny)
3. There are policies in other institutions that may conflict with the welfare of the family (Family leave Act)
4. The resources and opportunities made available to families will affect the class position of its members--some societies are far more advanced
Assumptions of Symbolic Interactionist perspective on Family
Focus: interaction among members of the family and the roles of family members
1. Family members acquire certain roles and corresponding responsibilities
2. Nurturing environment in the family is affected by quality patterns of interaction among members
Assumptions of Feminist Perspective on the family
Focus: gender relations in the family and how the family reflects gender inequalities in the larger society; how the family can play a role in promoting gender inequality
1. Patriarchal relations in the family perpetuates gender inequality in society
2. Gender roles in the family are learned and gender role resocialization can be managed-->adrogeny
3. Unequal gender division of labor in the family=double shift for women who work outside the home
4. The family can be a center for changing gender inequalities
Developmental Role Perspective on Family
Focus: the varying needs of the family as it moves to different phases of its life cycle
1. The family undergoes a life cycle.  Each cycle has particular needs that must be met in order to move to the next phase in teh cycle
2. Helps to see the role of the family, but also the role of society in helping the family meet its goals in each stage
3. Families needs need to be met so that they are able to move to the next phase
4. If the family does not move from cycle to cycle, it will impact the larger society
Phases in Developmental role Perspective
1. Childless couple
2. Children
3. Children go to schoool
4. Children leave home (empty nest)
5. retirement/grandparenting
6. Widowhood/deaht
Functionalist Perspective on Education (Assumptions)
1. Educational institutions have the manifest function of transmitting knowledge.
2. Latent functions=social control; socialization; Integration (creation of common culture, cultural stability and concensus)
Conflict Perspective assumptions on education
Credentialism and Elitism
1. Reinforce inequality (statuses based on institution attended)
2. May perpetuate the class structure (tracking, correspondence principle, unequal allocation of resources)
3. As an institution, education develops a beauracracy (power structure leads to institutional discrimination)
4. Education can be a tool for social change rather than to preserve the status quo.
an increase in teh lowest level of education needed to enter a field
1. Employers raise degree requirements because applicants have met expectations
2. Reinforces social inequality (1. educational institutions benefit, and 2. current job holders get higher status)
practice of placing students into specific curriculum groups on basis of test scores and other criteria
1. Do not identify students with the potential to succeed
2. Designed to meet the needs of capitalism
*conflict perpective sees tracking as a way of perpetuating class structure by providing differential access to education
Correspondence Principle
schools promote the values expected of individuals in each social class and perpetuate social class divisions from one generation to the next
(tracking students based on class, gender, or race)
Conflict view on Education
Feminist Perspective on Education
1. Gender discrimination is present in schools
2. Gender bias-under representation of women's experiences in curriculum
3. Segregation of women in certain courses
4. Gender classroom (sexism in education)
Interactionist Perspective on Education
1. Hidden Curriculum--values, ideologies, views are learned through sublte transmission
2. Diversity in education--contact hypothesis
3. Teacher expectancy effect (self fulfilling prophecy)
Teacher expectancy effect
Interactionist view on education
1. teacher's expectations about a student's performance may have an affect on the student's actual achievements
2. Ability alone may be less predictive of academic success
system of meaning people have about their relationship to a supreme or supernatural being, and life after death, and their present existence
1. Common characteristics-social justice, love, compassion, dignity
2. (text)unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things
3. is a social construct
Durkheim's perspective on religion
1. more functionalist
2. religion is a social construct--religon is a collective act
3. people create it in order to make sense of their lives--social impact of religion on individuals and institutions
Karl Marx theory on religion
1. Religion can create false conciousness amont people; when oppressors use religion to justify inequality or injustice it perpetuates exploitation and inequality
2. Influence on conflict view
3. Religion impeded social change
Liberation Theology
1. transformative role of religion motivates people to be involved in social movements for justice and to change inequalities--lead to emergence of basic Christian communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia
2. Use of a church in a political effort ot eliminate poverty, discrimination, and other forms of injustice from a secular society
3. Marxism
4. Organized religion has morela obligation to take public stand against opression
Weberian Theory
Conflict on Religion
1. Connection between religion and capitalism
2. Protestant ethic (disciplined work ethic) influenced by Calvinism
3. drive to accumulate savings for investment--"spirit of capitalism"
4. Collective nature of religion impacts society
5. Decline of religion as an over riding force in society opened the way for workers to express discontent
Secularization theory
religion in modern society diminishes its influence among people and institutions
Dual role of religion
it can be used to legitimize or de-legitimize inequality
Types of economic Systems
1. Capitalism
2. Socialism
3. Mixed Economy
4. Communist Economy
Communist Economy
1. Considered by Karl Marx as the "ideal society"
2. Classless
3. Means of production are collectively owned
4. Profits are collectively shared
5. Relations of production are collectively decided upon by workers
1. means of production owned by private individuals or corporations
2. Control of production is concentrated among the capitalist
3. Main goal is profit maximization
4. Profits are distributed among the capitalist (stock holders)
5. Monopoly capitalism=dominance of the transnational corporations
6. Laissez Faire-people compete freely with little government intervention in teh economy
7.  globalization and increase in MNc's has spread the capitalistic pursuit
*increase in demand for columbite lead to indirect funding of war in Rwanda
1.  Means of production and distribution are collectively owned
2. Main goal is to meet people's needs rather than profit maximization
3. Government intervention in or regulation of the economy
4. government subsidized services for the people
Mixed Economy
1. Combination of privately owned enterprises and collectively owned enterprises
2. allows for government regulation in economic activities to control negative aspects of capitalism
Informal Economy
1.  transfers of goods, money, or services take place, but are not reported to the government
2. Avoidance of taxes and government regulations
a sense of estrangement or disassociation from your surrounding society
sources of alienation according to Karl Marx
1.powerlessness of workers--concentration of power in TNC's
2. automation--people cease to be creative
3. lack of control of working conditions
4. pressure
Sources of alienation Durkheim
1. increasing differentiation of labor process
2. Impersonality of beuracratic organization
Alienation as a form of dehumanization
1. work or labor are an extension of the human identity
2. Work must humanize
3. Work dehumanizes when expoitation, alienation, or a low level of satisfaction occur.
Trends in the U.S. Economy
1. Deindustrialization--service economy
2. Contingency workforce--un/under employment; temp jobs
3. E-commerce--electronic selling
4. impersonalism and increased alienation from web
1. Systemic widespread withdrawal of investment in basic aspects of productivity such as factories and plants
2. need for labor decreases as technology increases
3. targets and locations of investments change
4. restructuring leads to waage and salary freezes, benefit cuts
5. Downsizing ( can also show class importance)
6. Offshoring--transfering work to foreign countries
Models of power structure in the United States
1. Elite model (Marx)
2. Power elite (Mill's)
3. Ruling class model (Domhoff)
Elite model of Power Structure
1. Karl Marx
2. Society is ruled by a small group of individuals who share a common set of political and economic interests
3. A small elite rules, and have a dominant voice in policy making
4. Military and government are servants of capitalist
Mill's Power Elite Model
1. a small group of military and government leaders who control the fate of the U.S.
2.  power in the hands of a few; inside and outside the governemtn
3. Pyramid model of upperclass rule
4. dominant power in the hands of the rich, executive branch, and military leaders
Domhoff's Ruling Class model
1. Power elite of the upper class forms the ruling class in the United States (agrees with Mills' view)
2. stresses role played by both elites of corporate world and politics--social upper class--white male domination
3. Electoral--two groups exercise influence--corporate conservative coalition--liberal labor coalition
Pluaralist model of power structure
many competing groups with the community have access to government so that no single group is dominant.
Sustainable Development Approach to community development
1. An approach to community development where economic development is done so that  there is a balance between economic growth and environmental stability
2. Nature is our life support system--if you destroy it you also destroy our source of life--not human development
3. Humans and nature are one
4.  Development of people is central principle
    a. concerned with eradicating poverty and other forms of social inequality, promoting social justice and human rights
     b.  collective participation of people in policy making; towards greater democratization
     c. greater sense of community
1. Process of diversifying services in the community--educational social, cultural, economic, commercial, industrial, political
2. Development of cities and towns--population growth; heterogeneous
Counter movements
organized collective action that resists change
Social movements
organized collective action involving large number of people to bring about change that can improve the quality of life
Models of Urban Growth
1. concerned with the relationship between people and their physical environment as they emerge in urban areas
2. Concentric zone model--a. central business district--residential areas--single families homes
3. multi nuclei model--suburban communities; various central points (education, business, industry, residential)
Essential elements of community
Common goals
concern for each others needs
sense of belonging
regular interaction
Models of community development
1. Growth machine model
2. integrated human development
3. needs oriented approach
4. defended neighborhoods
5. Sustainable development
6. Asset based approach
Growth machin model of community development
profit oriented
capitalist model
main interest is for the corporate class
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