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Which of the following statements is correct?
The chin is cranial to the navel.    The navel is medial to the chin.    The navel is lateral to the chin.    The navel is superior to the chin
The chin is cranial to the navel.
It is possible for slight anatomical variations to occur in a human body; for example, a nerve or blood vessel may be somewhat out of place, or a small muscle may be missing.
True
What is the regional term designating the limbs?
The appendicular part
The coronal plane divides the body into anterior and posterior parts. 
True
Which of the following best describes a sagittal plane?
  A horizontal plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.    A vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts.    A horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts.    A vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
A vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts.
The ventral body cavity is subdivided into which of the following cavities?
The thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
A serosa, or serous membrane, can be found within which one of the following body cavities?
The spinal cavity

  The ventral body cavity

  The cranial cavity

  The dorsal body cavity
The ventral body cavity
Which of the following is a property of matter?
Mass of an object can change depending upon a variety of factors including gravitational pull, atmospheric pressure and temperature.   Matter can exist in solid, liquid, or gaseous states.   The weight of matter remains constant wherever the object is.   In all cases, matter can be seen, smelled and felt.
Matter can exist in solid, liquid, or gaseous states.
Define potential energy
Potential energy is stored energy, which has the capacity to do work, but is not presently doing so.
Something with a pH of 5 would _____.
have fewer H+ ions than OH- ions

  have more H+ ions than OH- ions

  be described as being basic

  be described as being neutral
have more H+ ions than OH- ions
All organic molecules contain carbon. 
True
Match the following organic molecules to their biochemical building blocks/precursors.
Proteins

DNA

Lipids

Carbohydrates 
Amino Acids 
 Nucleotides  
Glycerol and fatty acids 
 Monosaccharides  
Which of the following is not one of the four basic elements that comprise approximately 96% of a human's body weight?

Hydrogen  Carbon  Potassium

  Oxygen
Potassium
The atomic number of an atom is equal to the number of protons in its nucleus.
True
Which of the following is true of an isotope?
Isotopes only exist for a few elements.    Isotopes have the same number of neutrons, but differ in the number of protons they contain.    Isotopes have the same number of protons, but differ in the number of neutrons they contain.    All isotopes of a given element are found in equal amounts in nature.
Isotopes have the same number of protons, but differ in the number of neutrons they contain.
If the pH or temperature of the environment that contains a protein is altered dramatically, then the protein may:
become denatured
Which of the following is true of atoms?
Atoms are composed of more or less identical particles or building blocks, called elements.    Depending upon the number of neutrons, an atom may possess a positive, negative, or neutral electrical charge.    Atoms of any given element will differ from those of all other elements and provide its unique physical and chemical properties.    An atom will always display a negative electrical charge.
Atoms of any given element will differ from those of all other elements and provide its unique physical and chemical properties.
Electrons bear a positive charge equal in strength to the negative charge of the proton.
False
Which of the following does not represent an accurate hierarchy in the natural combination of matter?
Protons, neutrons, and electrons comprise atoms, which chemically bond with other atoms to form molecules.    When two or more similar kinds of atoms bind, they form an isotope.    A molecule contains two or more atoms.    Mixtures are substances composed of two or more components physically blended.
When two or more similar kinds of atoms bind, they form an isotope.
Buffers:
stabilize pH
In biochemistry, and thus in the body, the universal solvent is:
water
Emulsions are heterogeneous mixtures.
True
In an ionic bond:
there is a transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to the other.
Polar molecules are electrically balanced, due to the equal sharing of electrons between the atoms of the molecules.
False
Nonpolar molecules are electrically balanced due to the equal sharing of electrons between the atoms of the molecules. Polar molecules are created due to unequal electron pair sharing. Water is one of the most important polar molecules in a living system.
Which of the following types of chemical reactions involves atoms or molecules combining to form a larger, more complex molecule?
Exchange  Decomposition  Synthesis
  Hydrolysis
Synthesis
Which of the following is not a way to distinguish an acid from a base?
When tasting a basic substance, it will have a bitter taste.

  A basic substance will have a slippery feel.  An acidic substance will have a sticky feel.  When tasting an acidic substance, it will have a sour taste.
An acidic substance will have a sticky feel.
Enzymes are unchanged in a reaction; they can be reused, and are not needed in large quantities.
True
The major function of RNA is to carry out the genetic instructions for protein synthesis.
True
Which of the following is not true of DNA?

The DNA molecule is coiled into a spiral staircase-like structure called a double helix.    DNA carries out the orders for protein synthesis issued by RNA.    DNA provides the basic instructions for building every protein in the body.    DNA replicates itself before cell division, ensuring that all genetic information in the descendent cells is identical.
DNA carries out the orders for protein synthesis issued by RNA.
Which of the following is the primary energy-transferring molecule in cells?
ATP
The smallest unit of life is the________. 
Cell
The outer boundary of a human cell is the:
plasma membrane.
Which of the following would not be found in the plasma membrane of a human cell?
Nucleic acids  Cholesterol  Glycolipids  Proteins  Phospholipids

Nucleic acids
Match the following cell junctions to their correct function.
Tight junctions

Desmosomes

Gap junctions
 Prevent molecules from passing through the extracellular space between adjacent cells  
 Anchoring junctions found in areas subjected to pulling forces  
Important for cell communication 
Water can readily diffuse through the plasma membrane.
True
Osmosis is:
the diffusion of water across a cell membrane.
Which of the following pairs is a correct match?

Endocytosis: passive transport  Osmosis: active transport  Exocytosis: active transport  Facilitated diffusion: active transport
Exocytosis: active transport
 Facilitated diffusion and osmosis are passive transport processes. Endocytosis and exocytosis are active transport mechanisms.
A cell will swell, and likely burst, if it is placed in a __________ solution.
hypotonic
Primary active transport is driven by secondary active transport.
False
Pinocytosis is a type of___________.
endocytosis
Cells of the body mainly use _______ for the selective endocytosis of most macromolecules.

pinocytosis  fluid-phase endocytosis  receptor-mediated endocytosis  diffusion
receptor-mediated endocytosis
At rest, most body cells are not polarized.
False
The primary site of cellular ATP production is the:
mitochondrion
Ribosomes are found:
in the cytosol and on the endoplasmic reticulum
Match the cell structure to its function.
Ribosome
Nucleolus
Endoplasmic reticulum
Peroxisomes
Cytoskeleton
Lysosomes    
 Protein synthesis  
RNA synthesis  
Protein folding, packaging, and modification  
Neutralize dangerous free radicals  
Support cellular structures
Contain digestive enzymes

DNA is replicated during the ________ phase of the cell cycle.

M  S  G1  G2
S
 The cell is rapidly growing during G1 of interphase. During the S phase of interphase the cell will continue to grow and DNA is replicated. In G2 of interphase, the cell is making final preparations to divide. In the mitotic phase (M phase) of the cell cycle, the cell divides to produce two daughter cells.
A gene is best defined as:
   a segment of DNA that carries instructions for the production of a polypeptide chain.    a segment of a protein that directs the production of RNA.    a segment of DNA that carries instructions for the production of a lipid.    a segment of a chromosome that allows for DNA replication.
a segment of DNA that carries instructions for the production of a polypeptide chain.
During transcription: 
mRNA is read to produce a protein.  DNA is used as a template to make mRNA.  mRNA is read to produce DNA.  t-RNA is used to build a protein.
DNA is used as a template to make mRNA.
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