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13th amendment
abolishes slavery


Lincoln's 10% Plan
10% of voters had to take a patriotic oath to the union and would abide by the Emancipation Proclamation.


Johnson's Plan
Johnson pardoned many Confederate leaders and was gentler on the South.
Violation of the Tenure of Office Act
Johnson violated the Tenure of Office Act, stating that he must have congress approval before firing cabinet members, by firing his secretary of war Edwin M. Stanton.
Radical Republican Reconstruction
  • 5 military districts
  • Anti-slavery
  • Supported the reconstruction amendments
  • Supported federal aid for RR development
  • Supported protective Tarrifs
Compromise of 1877
  1. The removal of all Federal troops from the former Confederate States. (Troops only remained in Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida, but the Compromise finalized the process.)
  2. The appointment of at least one Southern Democrat to Hayes' cabinet. (David M. Key of Tennessee was Postmaster General). Hayes had already promised this.
  3. The construction of another transcontinental railroad using the Texas and Pacific in the South (this had been part of the "Scott Plan," proposed by Thomas A. Scott, which initiated the process that led to the final compromise);
  4. Legislation to help industrialize the South.
Impact of RR's
  • Led to the destruction of Native American lands, buffalo, and culture
  • Boom Towns
  • Jobs
Vertical integration
The act of buying out all the suppliers, therefore controlling all the raw materials.
Horizontal Consolidation
Companies producing similar products merge, thus taking out the competition.
Monopoly
Complete control over an industry, achieved by buying up or driving out of business all competitors.
Oligopoly
A market in which only a few sellers provide a particular.
Darwinism
The belief that life is based on survival of the fittest, where the strongest will thrive and the weak are weeded out.
Laissez-faire
Free enterprise/little government involvement in economic affairs.
Trust
Trustees are given a corporations stock and dividends are sent to the other corporations. All business come together and set prices.

Andrew Carnegie
Owner of U.S. steal, almost had a monopoly, went from rags to riches.
J. P. Morgan
Took over the steel company after Carnegie gave it to him.
Industrialization
New technologies such as the RR's and telegraphs made moving across the nation and communication easier.
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