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Abstract is
Summary of hypotheses, methods and results
Introduction outlines....(4)
Research questions Reviews past research Theory Introduces formal hypotheses
Methods describe
Participants procedure and materials used
Results describe.....
What was found Tables Graphs Statistics
Discussion is when we ask
Are results consistent with hypotheses?
Goals of science are....
Description Explanation Application
Two research designs....
Correlational Experimental
Testing a theory order
Theory hypotheses Empirical research Confidence increases or decreases Either discard, or keep modifying (even+)
Case study is
Description of a single person or an event, use to study rare or unusual cases
Advantage of a case study?
Able to study \"impossible\" studies Create theories
Disadvantages of a case study?
Observer bias may not be consistent
Observation is
Systematic recording of specific behavior in a particular setting record behavior objectively and precisely
Naturalistic observation?
Less control over situation More natural behavior
Lab observation?
More control but more artificial behavior
Psychological tests assess
Mental aptitude, personality traits& abilities
Psychological tests are given...
Twice, samE test
Criterion validity is
Predicting other measures of the trait
validity  is...
degree to which test measures what it is intended to measure
Correlational Studies investigate...
relationship between two variables
Psychological  surveys are...
standardized instruments assessing things that aren't stable and can change over time ie: preferences, behavoiurs.
a representative sample is...
a group of individuals selected for a study which mathes the population on important characteristics
volunteer bias is
people who dont participate but may be important in the study
Forms to map the brain?
Ways to look at the structure of the brain?
Psychological Construct is...
abstract psychological concept (agression, intelligence etc)
Operational Definition
how youre going to measure something (kindness etc)
Independent Variable is
what we think is the "cause" manipulated in experimental studies naturally occurring in correlation.
dependent variable
what we think is the effect is measured
Confounding variable is
closely associated with the independent variable maybe the alternative explanation to behaviour
Experiments investigate...
effect of IV on DV
Which study uses random assignment?
Cause and Effect has what three criteria?
temporal procedure covariation alternative explanations can be eliminated
Temporal Procedure means that
the cause must precede effect (IV first, DV second)
Covariation means
cause and effect must occur togethr IV falls, DV falls vice versa
Confounding variables include
experimenter bias, personality traits etc
In experimental design studies, the minimum amout of people in a group is
Correlational studies are useful for...
creating new theores and for description
we use correlational studies for ____ reasons
ethnic/ moral
x of y cards