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When talking about nutrients, what does "essential" mean?
Your body cannot make them.
How many kcal/gm do CHOs, proteins, fats, and alcohol yield?

CHO: 4 kcal/gm

Protein: 4 kcal/gm

Fat: 9 kcal/gm

Alcohol: 7 kcal/gm
Why do we eat?
  1. Appetite
  2. Physiological needs
  3. Food flavor, texture, & appearance preferences
  4. Food availability
  5. Food marketing
  6. Health & nutrition concerns, knowledge, & benefits
  7. Lifestyle
  8. Routines & habits
  9. Education, occupation, & income
  10. Food cost
  11. Food customs and culture
  12. Social network of family & friends
  13. Special needs
What does EAR stand for?
Estimated average requirement
What do nutrients do for us?
Provide energy
>most carbs
>proteins
>most lipids
Promote Growth & Development
>proteins
>lipids
>some vitamins
>some minerals
>water

Regulate body processes
>proteins
>some lipids
>some vitamins
>some minerals
>water
What are the six types of nutrients?
  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Lipids (Fats and Oils)
  3. Protein (Amino Acids)
  4. Vitamins
  5. Minerals
  6. Water
What is a cohort study?
What does RDA stand for?
Recommended dietary allowance
What is a phytochemical?
Something that is naturally occurring in a food that gives it an added benefit

Ex: Lycopene in tomatoes reduces risk of prostate cancer
What does UL stand for?
Upper level
What are the different ways of assessing nutritional status?
  1. Anthropometric
  2. Biochemical
  3. Clinical
  4. Dietary
  5. Environmental
What is a double blind study?
When neither the researchers or participants in a study know who is taking the placebo or the medication.
What is a case-control study?
What are the factors affecting nutrient composition?
  1. Farming conditions
  2. Maturity & ripeness of plants
  3. Food processing
  4. Shipping conditions
  5. Storage time
  6. Cooking processes
What does EER stand for?
Estimated energy requirement
How do you calculate nutrient density?
  1. Divide the amount of the nutrient per serving by the recommended amount
  2. Divide the calories in a serving by daily calorie need
  3. Compare the two: >contribution nutrient needs than calorie need
  4. "empty calorie needs"
What does DRI stand for?
Dietary reference intake
List seven tips for healthy eating.
  1. Grains: 1/2 of your choices - whole grain
  2. Vegetable: think color
  3. Fruits: limit fruit juices; ^ fiber
  4. Milk: less fat or fat-free
  5. Meat & beans: portion sizes
  6. Oils: eat fish 2x/wk; liquid @ room temp.
  7. Moderation!
What is a migrant study?
What does AI stand for?
Adequate intake
What is a zoochemical?
Something that is naturally occurring in an animal product that proveds an added benefit

Ex: Omega-3 and omega-6 in salmon
What nutrients must be listed on a Nutrition Facts Panel?
  1. Total calories
  2. Calories from fat
  3. Total fat
  4. Saturated fat
  5. Cholesterol
  6. Sodium
  7. Total carbs
  8. Fiber
  9. Sugars
  10. Protein
  11. Vitamin A & C
  12. Calcium
  13. Iron
*Fortified or nutrients listed in health claims must also be included.
Name the dietary guidelines and an example for each.
1. Adequate nutrients within energy needs
>
2. Weight management
>
3. Food groups to encourage
>
4. Physical activity
>
5. Sodium % potassium
>
6. Alcohol beverages
>
7. Fats
>
8. Food safety
>
9. Carbohydrates
>
What does AMDR stand for?
Adequate macronutrient distribution range
What does the food pyramid try to help with?
  1. Variety
  2. Proportionality
  3. Moderation
  4. Personalization
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