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by Jeska

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Behavioral Data
Reports of observation about the behavior of organisms
Hermann Ebbinghaus
One of the first experimental Psychologists
Immanual Kant
Developed Nativist View: People begin life with mental structures that provide constraints on how they experience the world.
John Locke
Devloped Empiricist View: People begin life with a blank slate, tabula rasa; the mind acquires information through experiences of the world.
Wilhelm Wundt
Founded the first formal laboratory devoted to psych.
Study of structure of mind and behavior, based on presumption that mental experience can be understood from the combination of basic components.

Attacks on Structuralism:

reductionistic: reduced human experience to simple sensation

elemental: sought to combine  parts into a whole rather than study study behavior directly

mentalistic: studied only verbal reports of human conscious awareness (ignored people who couldn't communicate) 
Max Wertheimer
Focused on the way how mind understands gestatls (organized wholes). The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
Gestalt Psychology
Importance of habits that us to adapt to environment and function effectivley.

Founder: John Dewey
Psychodynamic Perspective
Thoughts, feelings, outside consciousness, may conflict with one another.

Behavior is driven by inner forces, instincts, biological drives, etc.  

Principles of Motivation devloped by Sigmund Freud.

Psychodynamic Theory: People pulled by a complex network of inner/outer forces
Behaviorist Perspective
Focus on observable behavior

How particular environments control behavior

Behavioral Response: Action to be understood

Founder: John Watson, believed psych should be about observable behavior

BF Skinner
Added consequences of behavior to behaviorist perspective
Humanistic Perspective
Humans are active creatures that are inately good  and capable of choice.  Holistic perspective.

Founders: Carl Rogers, people have natural tendency towards psych health

Abraham Maslow: self-actualization
Cognitive Perspective
Human thought and all processes of knowing, thinking, remembering, understanding, etc.

Pioneers: Noam Chomsky and Jean Piaget
Biological Perspective
Search for underlying physical structures, biochemical process

Behavior as a cause of genes, brain, nervous system, and endocrine system.

Behavior Neuroscience: Understand brain processes underlying behavior

Cognitive Neuroscience: Focus on brain bases of higher cognitive function such as memory and language.
Evolutionary Perspective
Connect psych to idea of life sciences, natural selection, evolution.  Mental abilities evolved over millions of years.
Sociocultural Perspective
Cross cultural differences in causes and consequences of behavior.
Systematic Approach
How it works, how different parts of brain work together, how they give rise to complex behavior
Handling Choices
Serially - Makes desicions one step at a time
Parallel - simultaneous, no extra time needed
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