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Candidiasis - balantis: Candida albicans skin infx; intertriginous(2 skin areas rubbing), erythematous, well-demarcated, pruritic patches; glistening surface, satellite lesions
Candidiasis - oropharyngeal: Candida albicans skin infx; intertriginous(2 skin areas rubbing), erythematous, well-demarcated, pruritic patches; glistening surface, satellite lesions
Candidiasis - Intertrigo: Candida albicans skin infx; intertriginous(2 skin areas rubbing), erythematous, well-demarcated, pruritic patches; glistening surface, satellite lesions
Candidiasis - diaper dermatitis: Candida albicans skin infx; intertriginous(2 skin areas rubbing), erythematous, well-demarcated, pruritic patches; glistening surface, satellite lesions
Tinea Corporis: Dermatophytoses- fungal infx of keratin s/sx: pruritic, circular/oval, erythematous, scaling patch/plaque, spreads centrifugally, central clearing w/ advancing red border
Tinea Barbae: Dermatophytoses- fungal infx of keratin uncommon; s/sx: pruritic & sometimes painful/swollen 2 patterns: ringworm & follicular
Tinea capitis: Dermatophytoses - fungal infx of keratin etio: Trichophyton tonsurans fungal hyphae arranged on a longitudinal direction w/in hair shafts
Tinea Cruris: "jock itch"; Dermatophytoses - fungal infx of keratin causes: obesity, diabetes, immunodeficient states s/sx:  spreads centrifugally; partial central clearing & slightly elevated, erythematous, sharply demarcated border may show tiny vesicles
Tinea pedis: "athlete's foot"; Dermatophytoses - fungal infx of keratin
s/sx: intensely pruritic, sometimes painful, erythematous vesicles/bullae btwn toes/ soles of feet, unilateral or bilateral;
  Dermatophytid Rxn ("id" rxn): 2o eruptions @ distant sites during fungal infx =look at hands
tinea versicolor: superficial infx w. Malassezia furfur
s/sx: hypopigmentation/hyperpigmentation/ erythematous macules w/ scaling patches
cutaneous larva migrans: hook worm (Ancylostoma) infx from cat/dog poop
s/sx: intense pruritis, erythema & papules, serpingious inflammation, occuring 3 wks after exposure
Pediculosis humanus capitis: infx of lice (blood sucking insect); may also infx the body (Pediculosis humanus corporis) or pubis (Phthris pubis)
s/sx: severe pruritis, excoriations from scratching, red puncta from bites, Nits on hair shaft 1 cm from scalp, brown specks of excrement
Scabies: infx w/ scabies mite Sarcoptes
s/sx: fine burrows, 2-10 mm wavy lines, covered by lichenified skin, OR erythematous papules w/o many burrows; intense pruritis esp @ night
filiform wart: benign contagious neoplasm caused by HPV
- long narrow small warts, soft
-seen on eyelids, face, neck
Flat wart: benign contagious neoplasm caused by HPV
- smooth, flat, yellow, brown or flesh colored, 2-3 mm
- seen on backs of hands, lower legs & face
genital wart (condylloma accuminata): benign contagious neoplasm caused by HPV
- soft moist papules/plaques
-seen on perineum, external genitalia, anus, vagina, cervix
plantar wart: benign contagious neoplasm caused by HPV
-single or multiple, painful & callused
-black puncta present when cut off
-seen on soles of feet
Mosaic wart: benign contagious neoplasm caused by HPV
- multiple plantar warts
Common wart (verrucae vulgaris): benign contagious neoplasm caused by HPV
- dome shaped, round or irregular, rough, 2-10 cm
-colors: gray, yellow, brown, black, flesh
-seen on hands, knees, genetalia, feet
molluscum contagiousum: pox virus infx in epidermal cells
-s/sx: smooth flesh colored unbilicated dome, hard
seen on arms & chest m/c, also face & genitals
Varicella (chicken pox): acute highly contagious vesicular eruption caused by primary infx w/ HHV3
-s/sx: centrifugal, intensely pruritic rash w/ lesions in all stages: papules, macules, vesicles, pustules, and crusts
-preceding eruptions: prodrome w/ malaise, chills, HA, sore throat, anorexia & dry mouth
Herpes Simplex 1: recurrent HSV1 infx ussually on mouth
-s/sx: single or clustered small vesicles on red base which rupture & ulcerate; often painful; dry up and completely heal in 2-6 wks
-systemic sx w/ 1o infx: fever, malaise, myalgia, HA
Herpes Simplex 2: recurrent HSV2 infx ussually on genitals
-s/sx: single or clustered small vesicles on red base which rupture & ulcerate; often painful; dry up and completely heal in 2-6 wks
-systemic sx w/ 1o infx: fever, malaise, myalgia, HA
Herpetic whitlow: HSV 1/2 infx distal phalanx w/ a very painful lesion that swells
herpes zoster (shingles): latent varicella (HHV3) infx
s/sx: erupts along dermatome; starts w/ radicular pain & itching for 2-3 days, followed by herpetic rash, mb severe pain, scarring, or post herpetic neuralgia
-lesions usually last ~5 days; Pain may lasts wks, months, yrs, indefinitely
-rarely crosses midline
herpes zoster (shingles): latent varicella (HHV3) infx
s/sx: erupts along dermatome; starts w/ radicular pain & itching for 2-3 days, followed by herpetic rash, mb severe pain, scarring, or post herpetic neuralgia
-lesions usually last ~5 days; Pain may lasts wks, months, yrs, indefinitely
-rarely crosses midline
Roseola infantum: infx of infants w/ HHV6 or 7; 10 day incubation
-s/sx: 3-5 days of high fever followed by macular rash on chest/abdomen (few hrs to a few days), cervical & post. cervical LAD;
Hand Foot and Mouth Dz: Febrile disorder caused by Coxsackie virus
-s/sx: vesicular eruption of skin & mucosa, 3-6 mm, fever, myalgia, LA, abd pain, lack of appetite, poor nursing (d/t painful oral lesions)
-lesions heal in 7 days
Hand Foot and Mouth Dz: Febrile disorder caused by Coxsackie virus
-s/sx: vesicular eruption of skin & mucosa, 3-6 mm, fever, myalgia, LA, abd pain, lack of appetite, poor nursing (d/t painful oral lesions)
-lesions heal in 7 days
Measles: paramyxovirus; incubation = 7-10 days
-s/sx:prodrome @ 9th day: 3-4 days of fever, coryza, conjuctivitis, photophobia, cough & Koplik spots (1-3 mm whitis/grayish/bluish elevations w/ erythematous base on buccal and vaginal mucosa) Rash: morbilliform, maculopapular, and blanching; appears after 2-3 days of prodrome & lasts 5-6 days
-rash begins on face and spreads cephalocaudally & centrifugally
Rubella (German Measles): RNA Rubella virus; mild dz but bad for pregos, mb asx
-s/sx: brief prodrome- fever, malaise, Rash= pinpoint pink maculopapules, may have petechia in soft palate; starts on face & spreads caudally/centrifugally
Vitiligo: idiopathic lack of melanocytes
-s/sx: sharply demarcated, symmetric pigmented areas; white spots w/ no scale; patchy & irregular
- assoc. w/ AI dz: thyroid dz, pernicious anemia, SLE, & Addison's dz
Melasma/chloasma: inc in melanin d/t estrogen stim & UV light
-s/sx: sharply delineated macular hyperpigmentation usu on face; fades incompletely when cause is removed
-usu seen in pregnant women or using birth control, more in dark skinned races
Lentigines: flat, tan/brown spots on sun exposed areas (face/back of hands); d/t chronic sun exposure
Diffuse Alopecia:
Dx:  pull 2-3 dozens hairs; if >5 w/ the bud come out
Triggers: wt loss, stress, pregnancy, illness, chemo
Alopecia areata: smooth circular discrete areas of complete hair loss that develops over a few wks
Triggers: AI, toxic, genes, infx, drugs & vaccinations
Scarring Alopecia: cutaneous lupus, deep bacterial infx, ulcers, granulomas, syphilis, tinea
Toxic Alopecia: related to chemo drugs
Hirsuitism: excess hair in females in areas not normally hairy
Dx: serum free/total testosterone, DHEA sulfate, FSH, LH, prolactin, TSH; often related to PCOS (poly cystic ovary synd)
Trichotillomania: a psychological disorder related to OCD where Pt pulls out hair
Onychomycosis: fungal infx of nail plate and/or bed
Causes: usu dermatophytes, can be yeast; risks: older age, swimming, tinea pedis, psoriasis, diabetes, immunodef., genes, living w/ infx person
S/sx: asx whit/brown/yellow patches & deformity; may thicken
Dx: KOH, if neg then nail culture
Paronychial infx: periungal (around the nail) infx
s/sx: pain, warm, erythematous, & swollen along nail margin; pus along nail margin or beneath nail
Dermatofibroma: benign proliferation of fibroblasts
s/sx: epidermal thickening & hyperpigmentation; sm, firm, non tender, red/brown papule that dimples when pinched, doesnt grow, usu solitary (can be up to 10)
-m/c on lower ext
-adults
Epidermal cyst: epidermally lined cyst containing keratinous material in the dermis
s/sx: contains keratin; firm flesh colored movable 1-3 cm nodule often w/ central punctum; nontender
-m/c on face, base of ears, and trunk
Keloid: excess fibroblastic proliferation following trauma & scarring
s/sx: elevated, shiny, firm protuberant nodule on site of injury; can have claw like extensions
-Asian & African most susceptible
Lipoma: subcutaneous nodules of adipocytes
s/sx: rubbery, moveable nodule below dermis; overlying skin is normal; varies in sixe; grows slowly
dx: if rapidly enlarging or firm - biopsy
Seborrheic keratosis: benign neoplasm; pigmented superficial lesions usu appear warty or mb smooth papules
s/sx: "stuck on", warty, well-circumscribed, scaly hyperpigmented lesions; inspection w/ hand lens = horn cysts or dark keratin plugs
-m/c in face, trunk, upper ext
-older adults
Lentigo (age spots or freckles): hyperpigmented macule d/t inc melanocytes
s/sx: darker, sparser, does not darken or multiply w/ sun
Junctional nevus: light brown/black, usu flat but can be slightly raised, pigmented, 1-10 mm
-on palms soles genitals
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