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What is the main goal of archaeology?
Recreate ancient societies & their organization based on material remains.
Archaeologists can ______ cultures at different stages throughout ____ and _____ to uncover processes such as _____-____ change.
Observe. Time and space. Long-term.
We recreate what the society was like based on what?
Material remains that we find and interpreting them by looking at change over time.
What is the most important thing when attempting to recreate a soceity?
The questions you ask. The hypothesis.
The question that a researcher asks is _______ by the ____ of society as well as __________ and ______ collected.
Limited. Type. techniques and data.
Take into consideration that every society has ______ _____, not everyone has ______.
Small sites. Cities.
Consider what interactions are occuring among sites in regard to _________/______.
Site all by itself -- village as its own society.
Things to consider regarding internal organization (3 things)
Differences in status, specialized professions, and subsistence.
3 main things to consider when asking questions
Site size in the region, dominance/power (large system controlling villages or controlling themselves?), and internal organization (how are things organized within village? Are all the houses the same? Differences in jobs? Public structures? Where does the power reside in the village?)
What did Elman Service develop?
A typology of political organizations
Traditional 4 types of societies
Band, Tribe (segmentary society), chiefdom, state
Foragers tend to have _____ organization
Horticulturalists and pastoralists tend to have _____ organization
Agriculturalists tend to have either ______-level or _____-level organization
Chiefdom. State.
In general, as the economy becomes more productive, population size _________ leading to greater regulatory _______, which gives rise to more ________ social relations and linkages.
Increases. Problems. Complex.
domesticating animals and living off them
living off of plants (domesticated)
There are many correlations b/w ______ and _________ organization.
Economy. Sociopolitical.
Bands normally have ___ populations and are politically ________.
Small. Egalitarian.
everyone is equal. no leader. leveling mechanisms keep egos in check. sexual division of labor.
Bands have what kind of substistence?
Bands are extermely _________ and have few _________ _______.
Mobile. Personal possessions.
Bands have ___________ religious practices and sometimes there are ______, which is achieved.
Unrestricted. Shaman.
Example of a band society
Hadza camps (about 1,000) in Tanzania.
Hadza have ___ members per camp and move camps how often?
30. Every 2-3 weeks.
Anything ________ is an archaeological band.
Evidince of a kill or a butchery site would be what?
Animal bones and stone tools.
A home base could be identified by what?
Evidence of repeated returning to that one location.
Tribes typically have _____ populations and maintain a __________/____________ subsistence.
Medium. Horticultural/pastoral.
Tribes have _______ societies with _______ rank.
______ are most likely the leaders.
__________ ties to multiple villages through ______.
_______ division of labor.
Incrased signs of _______ and ______.
Segmentary. Achieved. Shaman. Kinship. Descent. Sexual. Conflict and warfare.
Tribes have ______ ________ housing and more _____ ______.
Semi-permanent. Personal Possessions.
Tribes experience more internal ______ and are more invested in ______ ______.
Conflicts. Specific locations.
Example of society with a village head
The position of village head is _______, but comes with very _________ authority.
Achieved. Limited.
Limited authority of a village head:
He cannot force or coerce people to do things. He can onyl persuade, harangue, and try to influence people to do things. He acts as a mediator in disputes, but he has no authority to back his decision or impose punishments.
The big man is like a village head, except that his authority is _____, in that he may have influence over more than ______ village.
Regional. One.
The big man is common to what region?
The South Pacific.
Among the ____________, the big man is the only ____ _____ beyond the household.
Kapauku. Political figure.
How is the position of big man achieved?
Through generosity, eloquence, bravery, physical fiteness, and supernatural powers.
The big man's power
His decisions are binding among his followers. He is an important regulator of regional events (feasts and markets).
In order to be a tribal leader, a big man or village head, a person must be _______. Why?
Generous. They must work hard to create a surplus to give away. This surplus is converted into prestige.
The big man is a ______, regional regulator who can _______ supporters from several villages for ______  and ______ on sepcific occasions.
Temporary. Mobilize. Produce and labor. The position is achieved over an individual's lifetime.
Segmentary Lineage Organizatoin (SLO) is based upon what?
Descent-group structure (patrilineal)
Segmentary lineages are composed __________, with _______ units combining into ______ ones.
Hierarchically. Smaller. Larger.
Maximal lineages
Share a common ancestor who lived long ago and whose membership is spread over a large area (inclusive).
Minimal lineages
The smallest unit in which members live in the same village and share a common ancestor who lived no more than 4 generations ago (exclusive)
Example of archaeological tribe
Catalhoyuk, Turkey
Chiefdoms and state are _______. Their _______ outlast the ___________ who occupy them.
Permanent. Offices. Individuals.
An office
A permanent position of authority that exists independently of the person who occupies it.
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