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What are the two major divisions of the Nervous system?
CNS & PNS
What are the Subdivisions for the CNS and PNS
CNS

  • brain

  • spinal cord


PNS

  • crainial nerves

  • spinal nerves

  • number of ganglia

  • sensory receptors

What is the definition of ANS?
ANS is the autonomic nervous system, and it uses both CNS and PNS to complete a task.

  • CNS- acts as the inhibitor function

  • PNS- acts as the excitetory function

What are the general senses?

  • heat

  • cold

  • touch

  • pressure

  • pain

Name the Special senses

  • sight

  • hearing

  • smell

  • taste

  • body position

  • balance

what are the 3 major impulses of the PNS?

  • converting to sensory impulses

  • conducting sensory impulses

  • distributing the motor impulses

3 major impulses of CNS

  • recieves

  • process and stores

  • sends motor impulses

What are the 4 functional types of neurons?

  • Somatic Afferent

  • Somatic Efferent

  • Viseral Afferent

  • Viseral Efferent

Which functional type of neuron is "subconcious nervous control"?
Viseral Efferent
what are tracts and nerves? and what is the difference?

  • Tracts and nerves are just a collection of axons and dendrites.

  • The only difference is where they are found in the body.

  • Tracts are found in the CNS and Nerves are found in the PNS

What anatomical type of neuron is most common in the body?
Pseudounipolar neurons
Which type of neuron supplies sensory to the ears, nose, and eyes?
Bipolar neurons
What do satellite cells do?
they support the ganglia in the PNS
What are oligodendrocytes & Neurolemmocytes?
the are what insulates the layers around axons
What is the difference between the two?
Nothing at all only their location


  • Oligodendrocytes are found in the CNS

  • Neurolemmocytes are found in the PNS



what do neuroglia "aka" glial cells do?
they help insulate the axons
What is the benefit of myelinated axons?
it significantly increases the speed of impulses across the axon
Define Astrocytes

  • the largest glial cell

  • helps form the blood/ brain barrier

Define Ependymal cells

  • material that helps float the brain

  • helps form the coroplexes


  • Name all six types of Glial cells-

  • and state in which nervous system they are found


  • Neurolemmocytes- PNS

  • Oligodendrocytes- CNS

  • Astrocytes- CNS (forms blood brain barrier)

  • Microglia- CNS (phagocytes)

  • Satellite cells- PNS (aids ganglia)

  • Ependymal cells- CNS (Helps secrete CSF)

What is the difference between myelin and myelin sheath?
Myelin sheath is an insulating layer of an axon and myelin is the lipid material that the myelin sheath is composed of
What is a threshold?
the point in which the axon hillock breaks and allows an action potential (impulse) run accross the axon
Explain Depolarization
1st phase of an action potential
when there is enough stimulization to reach threshold, the voltage gated potassium channels open and allows a rush of Na+ to rush in
Explain Repolarization
2nd phase of an action potential
when the charge of the cytoplasm is TOO positive and it reaches threshold again, the voltage gated potassium channels open up again and the K+ rushes out
Explain how the sodium potassium pump works

  • there is always 3 Na+ out and 2 K+ in

  • it helps to restore the original charge of the cytoplasm

  • it is working all the time

  • Requires ATP and they are located all through out a neuron

what is a synapes?
a connection between neurons and other cells or neurons
Describe what a Neurotransmitter is, and where it is found
a chemical substance that sends information accross the synapses.
Found within the vessicles at the end of a neuron
Explain Saltatory Conduction
it is an impulse that can move quickly through an axon because it can "skip" or "jump" over the neurolemmocytes
How does Regular nervous conduction compare to saltatory conduction?
Regular nervous impulses are slower because they have to wait until the channels open up once they have reached their threshold
What are the three things a neuron can synapse with

  • another neuron

  • muscle cell

  • glandular epithelial cell

Development of the nervous system

  • What is the neural plate?

in development, the area of the ectoderm that is overlying the notochord THICKENS to form the neural plate
Development of the nervous system

  • What does the neural plate turn into?

The neural groove
Development of the nervous system

  • What does the neural groove turn into?

It then becomes a neural tube
Development of the nervous system

  • What is the next thing that happens once the neural tube is formed?


  • The neural crest seperates from the neural tube to form sensory neurons, autonomic neurons, glial cells, and pigmented cells


  • From there what is the 3 vessicle stage?

  • What does the anterior end of the neural tube become?

it is the 3 vessicles that develope at the anterior end of the neural tube that are destined to form the brain.

  • prosencephalon (forebrain)

  • mesencephalon (midbrain)

  • rhombencephalon (hindbrain)

What is the 5 vessicle stage that follows?
it is when the prosencephalon, rhombencephalon, and mesencephalon further develops
What 2 things does the procencephalon become?

  • telencephalon

  • dicephalon

What does the rhombencephalon become?

  • metencephalon

  • myelencephalon

What does the mesencephalon become?
it stays the same :)
telencephalon then becomes which part of the brain?

  • and what is it responsible for?

the cerebrum-

  • the 1st largest part of the brain

  • controls sensory perception, thought, memory, and motor output

Diencephalon becomes what?

  • And what is it responsible for?

Epithalamus-

  • produces melatonin hormone


Thalamus-

  • relay center for general sensory impulses


Hypothalamus-

  • thirst, hunger, satiety, sleep, awakefulness, sexual response, cardiovascular control

What does Mesencephalon become?
nothing it stays the same- Mesencephalon

  • it is a reflex center for audition and vision. it also contains motor nuclei for the oculomotor and trochlear nerves


it is the smallest major part of the brain
What does metencephalon become?
Pons

  • motor nuclei for crainial nerves Trigeminal n., Abducens n., Facial n. (5,6, &7)


Cerebellum

  • white matter within, motor impulses to skeletal muscles


The cerebellum is the second largest part of the brain
Myelencephalon becomes...........
Medulla oblongata

  • nuclei contributes fibers to Crainial nerves Vestibulocochlear n., Glossalpharengeal n., Vagus n., Accesory n., Hypoglossal n. (8,9,10,11,12)

What is the function of the Frontal lobe?

  • communication

  • thought

  • movement

Function of the parietal lobe?
sensory
Occipital lobe?
vision
Temporal lobe?
sound
Insular lobe?
memory
Where and why does the spinal cord widen in specific areas?

  • it widens in the cervicle and lumbosacral intumescence

  • due to the increased number of neurons and fiber tracts in thoses area associated with the limbs

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