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What are the components of the PNS?
  • cranial nerves
  • spinal nerves
  • autonomic & Sensory ganglia
  • sensory receptors
What are the functions of the PNS?

  • convert energy to sensory impulses

  • conducting into CNS

  • Conducting FROM CNS to effector organs (Muscles and glands)


  • Compare a nerve with a nerve (fiber) tract

  • And what exactly are they composed of?


  • A Nerve is found only in the PNS & a nerve tract is only found in the CNS

  • They are bundles of nerve fibers and axons

Define: Epineurium
the encasement around the whole nerve/ tract
Define: Perineurium
it is the C.T. proper within the epineurium
Define: Endoneurium
the c.t. proper around an axon
Define: Fasciculi
subdivided axons (into groups)
Name all 12 cranial nerves (In correct numeric order)

  • I- Olfactory nerves

  • II- Optic nerves

  • III- Oculomotor nerves

  • IV- Trochlear nerves

  • V- Trigeminal nerves

  • VI- Abducens nerves

  • VII- Facial nerves

  • VIII- Vestibulocochlear nerves

  • IX- Glossalpharengeal nerves

  • X- Vagus nerves

  • XI- Accessory nerves

  • XII- Hypoglossal nerves

Which cranial nerves are sensory ONLY nerves?

  • And name which transmitting foramen they derive from


  • Olfactory nerves- smell- cribiform foramina of the ethmoid bone

  • Optic nerves- Vision- optic canal of the sphenoid bone

  • Vestibulocochlear nerves- Hearing and balance- internal acoustic meatus of the temporal bone

Which cranial nerves supply the skeletal muscles?

  • Which type of neuron is ALWAYS going to skeletal muscles?

  • Name the transmitting foramen as well


In this order: (nerve, motor, foramen)

  • SE (Somatic Efferent neurons)





  • III Oculomotor n.- muscles to the eye- superior orbital fissure

  • IV Trochlear n.- superior oblique m. of the eye- superior orbital fissure

  • V Trigeminal n./ mandibular n.- motor of mastication- oval foramen of the sphenoid bone

  • VI Abducens n.- motor to lateral rectus m. of eye- superior orbital fissure

  • VII Facial n.- motor to facial expressions and stapedius m.- passes through both internal aucoustic meatus and stylomastoid foramen of the temporal bone

  • IX Glossopharengeal n.- motor to some m. of the pharynx- jugular foramen

  • X Vagus n- motor to some m. of the larynx and pharynx- jugular foramen

  • XI Accessory n.- motor to trapezius and part of sternocleidomastoid m.- jugular foramen

  • XII Hypoglossal n.- motor to m. of the tongue and infrahyoid muscles- hypoglossal canal of occipital bone

Which cranial nerve is responsible for taste (has gustatory fibers)?
IX- Glossopharyngeal n.
Which cranial nerve does NOT emerge from the skull?
VIII- Vestibulocochlear n.
How many cranial nerves pass through the jugular foramen of the skull?
3
General info carried by:

  • anterior branches of spinal nerves

motor fibers
General info carried by:

  • posterior branches of spinal nerves

sensory and motor fibers
 
General info carried by:

  • anterior roots of spinal nerves

sensory and motor fibers that are carried hypaxially
General info carried by:
  • Posterior roots of spinal nerves
sensory fibers into spinal cord
Define Brachial plexus
a network of nerves that supply each superior limb
What are the Sensory & Motor functons of:
  • Median & Ulnar nerves?
  • Sensory: skin of manus
  • Motor: anterior antebrachial nerves of manus
What are the Sensory & Motor functons of:
  • Musculocutaneous nerve
  • Sensory: skin (anterior aspect of forearm/ most on lateral 1/2 of posterior forearm)
  • Motor: anterior muscles of the brachium
What are the Sensory & Motor functons of:
  • Radial nerve
  • Sensory: posterior manus & antebrachium
  • Motor: posterior muscles of brachium, antebrachium, and posterior manus
Define: Lumbosacral plexus
They are the nerves that supply the inferior limbs
What are the Sensory & Motor functons of:
  • Femoral Obturator
  • Sensory: medial crus
  • Motor: pectineus & Sartorius m./ Quadraceps femoris m.
Which is the LARGEST nerve in the body?
The sciatic nerve
Regarding synapses; compare:

  • sensory ganglia and

  • autonomic ganglia


  • Sensory Ganglia- no synapses occur

  • Autonomic ganglia- serve as a synaptic site between pre and post ganglionic neurons

What type of neuron motor chain are autonomic ganglia in the PNS?

  • 2 neuron chain

Name the 5 general senses

  • Heat

  • Cold

  • Touch

  • Pressure

  • Pain

Which sensory receptor is responsible for:
(General/ Specific Name)

  • Heat


  • Thermoreceptor

  • Organs of ruffini

Which sensory receptor is responsible for:
(General/ Specific Name)

  • Cold


  • Thermoreceptors

  • Corpuscula bulboidea (AKA- Bulbs of krause)

Which sensory receptor is responsible for:
(General/ Specific Name)

  • Touch


  • Mechanoreceptors

  • Nerve endings/ Menisci tacti (AKA- Merkel's cells)

Which sensory receptor is responsible for:
(General/ Specific Name)

  • Pressure (Skin/ Organs)


  • Mechanoreceptors

  • Corpuscula lamellosa (AKA- Pacinian corpuscles)

Which sensory receptor is responsible for:
(General/ Specific Name)

  • Pain


  • Nociceptors

  • Free nerve endings


 
Name the 6 Special senses

  • Hearing- audition

  • Smelling- Olfactory

  • Tasting- Gustation

  • Balance- equilibrium

  • Sight- vision

Give the definition of a sensory receptor
a structure that generates sensory impulses
What sensory is Menisci tacti (AKA- Merkel's cell) responsible for?
touch
What sensory is ruffini responsible for?
heat
What sensory is corpuscula tactili (AKA- meissner's corpuscles) responsible for?
light touch
What is the

  • Name of the sensory receptor and

  • Stimulus


for Skeletal muscle bellies

  • Name: Neuromuscular spindles

  • Stimulus- Stretch

What is the

  • Name of the sensory receptor and

  • Stimulus


for Tendons

  • Name: Neurotendinous spindles

  • Stimulus: Stretch

What is the

  • Name of the sensory receptor and

  • Stimulus


for Eye

  • Name: Rods & Cones of Retina

  • Stimulus: (Rods) Dim light, (Cones) bright light

What is the

  • Name of the sensory receptor and

  • Stimulus


for Internal Ear

  • Name: Haircells of Spiral organ

  • Stimulus: Vibrations in fluid



  • Name: Haircells of crista ampullaris

  • Stimulus:fluid movement (Flow)



  • Name: Haircells of macula

  • Stimulus: gravitational/ inertial forces




What is the

  • Name of the sensory receptor and

  • Stimulus


for the Taste buds in your mouth

  • Name: gustatory cells

  • Stimulus: chemicals

What is the

  • Name of the sensory receptor and

  • Stimulus


for smell

  • Name: Olfactory cells

  • Stimulus: chemicals

What is the

  • Name of the sensory receptor and

  • Stimulus


for Several organs

  • Name: Baroceptors

  • Stimulus: pressure

State the locations on the tongue for:

  • sweet

  • salty

  • sour

  • bitter


  • sweet- tip

  • salty- front sides

  • sour- back sides

  • bitter- back middle

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