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What is the difference between skeletal muscle tissue and a skeletal muscle?
A skeletal muscle is an organ, and skeletal muscle tissue is a component OF a skeletal muscle
Name the tissues found in any skeletal muscle

  • Skeletal muscle tissue

  • C.T. proper

  • smooth muscle tissue

  • epithelium

  • nervous tissue

  • blood

What are some basic functions of skeletal muscles that perfom in the body?

  • venous return

  • heat production

  • locomotion

  • posturing

  • respiration

  • prehension

  • mastication

  • deglutition

  • orifice closure

  • abdominal press

  • vocalization

  • eye movements

Define the following (In regards to a skeletal muscle)

  • Belly

the contractile portion of the muscle
Define the following (In regards to a skeletal muscle)

  • Tendon

the fibrous connective tissue attachments
Define the following (In regards to a skeletal muscle)

  • aponeuroses

a broad sheet like tendons
(Ex. bicipital aponeuroses & epineurium aponeuroses)
Define the following (In regards to a skeletal muscle)

  • Epimysium

the fibrous C.T. that surrounds some muscle bellies
Define the following (In regards to a skeletal muscle)

  • Perimysium

Define the following (In regards to a skeletal muscle)

  • Endomysium

Define the following (In regards to a skeletal muscle)

  • Fascicle

term for segmented muscle cells
How does the following relate too or interact with skeletal muscles?

  • Fasciae

the ct proper that binds skin to muscle (serves as an avenue for vessels and nerves)
Define

  • Retinaculum

bands of C.T proper that binds or holds tendons in certain locations
Define

  • Bursae

Synovial fluid-filled sacs (Similar to joint capsules)

  • They cusion tendons, and reduce sliding friction

  • they are found between tendons- in certain locations

Define

  • Tendon Sheath

the burse taht surround tendons and form a closed fluid-filled "capsule"
Which are the 3 muscles, who's tendons usually contain sesamoid bone

  • tendon of the flexor hallucis brevis

  • tendon of flexor pollicis brevis

  • tendon of quadracips femoris muscle

Define Myofiber-
(AKA- muscle fibers)
individual myocytes
Define: Myofibril
A contractile organelle found in cytoplasm of a muscle cells
Define: A band
The band is the "dark" portion of a muscle that includes the myocine column and down
Define: I band
The I band is the "light" portion of a muscle which includes the z line and actine (Inbetween the myocine)
Define: M line
section of the protein knobs which hold the myosin together
Define: Z line
the z line is the is the center of each I band which holds the cross linked proteins together
Which muscular structure gets shorter during contraction?
All the muscular structures of a myomere get more narrow durring contraction BESIDES the A band
Define: Agonist
Any muscle that is contracting
Define: Synergist
muscles that perform the same action (work together)
Define: Antagonist
Muscles that work against eachother
Define: Fixator
Fixators can be antagonistic to 1 or more actions (to accomplish a desired movement)
Why can single actioned muscles be fixators but cannot have fixators?
Because they only have 1 action, because having fixators would imply the muscle to do at least 2 different actions
What are the two things that can produce body movement BESIDES muscle contraction?

  • Gravity

  • Elastic recoil

Define: Motor unit
a single motor neuron and group of myofibers that it controls
List the 7 major groups of skeletal muscles

  • Muscles of the head

  • Neck

  • Back

  • Thorax

  • Abdomen

  • Superior limb

  • Inferior limb

Divide the muscles of the head into 6 groups

  • Face

  • Eye

  • Ear

  • Mastication

  • Palate

  • Tongue

What are the 6 groups of muscles in the neck?

  • Suprahyoid muscles

  • Infrahyoid

  • Suboccipital muscles

  • pharyngeal

  • laryngeal

  • others (example: platysma)

Define Epaxial
muscles that are positioned behind the transverse processes of the vertebrae
Define: Hypaxial
Muscles that are positioned infront of the transverses of the vertebrae
What specific part of which muscle can you see when someone has very defined calves?
The lateral and medial heads of the gastrocnemius muscles
Name 3 divisions of mesoderm oneach side of the notochord
  • paraxial mesoderm
  • intermediate mesoderm
  • lateral plate mesoderm
Which one "gives rise" to myoblasts
paraxial mesoderm
what causes rigor mortis
rigo mortis occurs when muscle tissue lacks the energy needed for relaxation- therefore remains in the contracted state

  • Occurs a few hours after death

What causes cramps
cramps are thought to be caused by the changes of normal levels of certain electrocytes
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