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How many subtypes of ganglia are there? And what are they?
there are two
  • Sensory
  • Autonomic
Where are sympathetic trunk ganglia found? And what do they look like?

  • On the left and right sides of the vertebral column

  • They look like a string of pearls

What are the 2 functional values of the "Two neuron chain?"

  • Multiplication

  • PNS interaction between preganglionic impulses (Excitatory/ Inhibitory)

Further explain how multiplication works in the two neuron chain
multiplication refers to  the ability to synapse with many postganglionic neurons causing a large paripheral response from small amounts of impulses from the CNS
Further explain how the PNS interaction is beneficiary
If the two neuron chain recieves enough inhibitory impulses during a period of time, they will not reach threshold potential and will not fire.
Name the ANS (Involuntary) effectors

  • Smooth muscle tissue

  • Cardiac muscle tissue

  • Glandular epithelium

Where can you find.....

  • Smooth muscle tissue

in the walls of most viseral organs
Where can you find.....

  • Cardiac muscle tissue

Heart, pulmonary trunk, aorta
Where do you find..........

  • Glandular Epithelium?

Exocrine/ endocrine glands
What are the two divisions of the ANS?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic divisions
What are ONLY sympathetic responses?
  • Sweat glands
  • Smooth muscle tissue (In vessel walls)
  • Pupilary dialator
  • arrector pili muscle
  • adreanal madulla gland
What are ONLY parasympathetic responses?

  • Ciliary muscles of the eye

  • pupilary sphincter

Explain the sympathetic structure in 5 steps
  • 1- First the impulse leaves the spinal cord through the anterior rootletts of the spinal nerves t1-L2
  • 2- The sympathetic preganglionic neurons course into the anterior branches of those spinal nerves
  • Then it moves into the white myelinated rami communicants
  • Then courses to the ipsilateral sympathetic trunk
  • moves up and down the trunk sometimes a ways before synapsing
what happens when preganglionic neurons synapse with posterior ganglionic neurons within the sympathetic trunk? Which pathway does it take?
it goes to the periferal effector organs
What are some examples of peripheral effector organs?
  • sweat glands
  • arrector pili muscles
  • smooth muscles in vessel walls
Where do synapses occur in sympathetic pathways that go to central effectors
on their postganglionic neurons
What are the cranial nerves that carry parasympathetic preganglionic fibers
  • 3- Oculomotor nerves
  • 7- Facial nerves
  • 9- Glossopharangeal nerve
  • 10- Vagus nerve
Outline the struture of the parasympathetic part of the ANS in 2 steps
  • Parasympathetic preganglionic neurons leave the CNS through the cranial nerves 3, 7, 9, and 10 through the sacral sagment of the spinal cord
  • They then synapse with autonomic ganglia in the head, thorax and abdomen
What are the higher centers that control the ANS output?
  • The peripheral "two-neuron" chain
  • Medula oblongata
  • Nuclei of hypothalamus
Define Sympathomimetic

  • List some examples

adrug or synthetic stimulant that stimulates the sympathetic responses in our body.

  • Dialation of the pupil

  • rate of breath


To help examine patients more accuratly
Define Parasympathomimetic
A synthetic stimulant that stimulates the parasympathetic responses
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