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Define drug
Any chemical which alters the body's functions or processes (affects physiologic and/or biochemical processes)
Define Medication
Drugs used in the treatment of illness or disease
Drug action mechanisms
  • Structurally Specific Drugs
  • Structurally Non-Specific Drugs
Structurally Specific Drugs
  • Act on lock and key theory
  • Drug will attach only to those receptors specific for that drug in order to achieve a response
Structurally Non-Specific Drugs
  • Act by permeation of cell membranes and act to disrupt normal cell function
  • Ex. Alchohol
Define Affinity
The tendency a drug has to bind with a receptor
Define Agonist
A drug with affinity that produces an effect
Define partial agonist
A drug with affinity that produces only a partial effect
Define antagonist

  • Drug with affinity that produces no effect.

  • Can be either competitive or non competitive

  • Lacks efficacy

  • Can be used to block receptors

Complete prescription order includes :

  • Patient's name

  • Medication name

  • Dosage

  • Frequency to be given

  • Duration to be given

  • Route of administration

  • Signature of prescribing physician

Pharmacology Routes of Administration
  • Intravenous injection- most efficient
  • Aerosol- 2nd most efficient
  • Intramuscular Injection
  • Subcutaneous Injection
  • Gastrointestinal Absorption- most widely used
Autonomic Nervous System
  • Governs the activities of smooth muscles of body systems, cardiac, digestive, sweat glands, and genitourinary
  • Has two subdivisions sympathetic and parasympathetic
  • Non voluntary functions
Sympathetic Branch
  • Short preganglionic fibers which terminate at ganglion and long post ganglionic fibers which terminate at effector organ sites
  • Ratio of pre-ganglionic to post ganglionic fibers is 1/11 to 1/17
  • Result is diffuse reponse thru out body
  • Fright, flight or fight response
Parasympathetic Branch
  • Long pre-ganglionic fibers which terminate at ganglion and short post ganglioninc fibers which synapse at effector organ
  • Ratio of pre-ganglionic to post-ganglionic fibers is 1/2
  • Results in more dicreet response
  • SLUD response- salivation,lactation,urination and defecation
Define Neurotransmitters
  • Nerve impulses are carried across synapse by chemical transmitters (neurotransmitters) which bind to receptors
  • Drugs exert their effect at  receptors
  • For drug to have desired effect it must be similar to chemical transmitter at ganglion or effector organ.
Ganglionic Receptors
Also called nicotinic receptors after the drug nicotene which was found to exert a stimulating effect here.
Muscarinic Receptors
Receptors at the parasympathetic effector organ site named after the drug muscarine which was found to have a stimulating effect here
The two basic receptors at the sympathetic organ site are :
  • Alpha
  • Beta
Alpha Receptor Effects
  • Vasoconstriction
  • Slight bronchoconstriction
  • Decreased HR
Beta1 Receptor Effects
  • Increased HR
  • Increase in foce of heart contraction results in increased blood pressure
  • Relaxation of uterus and GI system
Beta2 Receptor Effects
  • Vasodilation
  • Bronchodialation
  • Skeletal muscle tremor
  • CNS stimulation
Sympathomimetics
  • Adrenergic
  • Drug whose effects mimic sympathetic nervous system
  • Ex: Epinepherine, Albuteral, Xopenex
Sympatholytics
  • Adrenergic blockers
  • Drugs whose effects block those of the sympathetic nervous system (antaganost)
  • Ex:
Parasympathomimetics
  • Cholinergics
  • Drugs whose effects mimic parasympathic nervous system
  • Ex: Mimics Actecolene
Racemic Epinepherine
  • Trade name- Vaponefrin, Micronefrin
  • Strength - 2.25% W/V
  • Effects- Alpha +2, Beta1 +3, Beta2 +2
  • Dosage- 5.63mg or 11.25mg in 3ml NS
  • Duration- .5-2hrs ultrashort
  • Sympathomimetics
Albuterol
  • Trade name- Ventolin, Proventil (MDI), Salbuterol
  • Strength- 1/200, 0.5% W/V
  • Effects- Alpha 0, Beta1 +1, Beta2 +5
  • Dosage- 1.25 or 2.5mg in 3ml NS, 90ug/puff 2QID
  • Duration- 3-8 hrs  
Pirbuterol
  • Trade name- Maxair (MDI)
  • Strength- 0.2mg/puff
  • Effects- Alpha 0, Beta1 +1, Beta2 +4
  • Dosage- 2-3 puffs QID, Q4-Q6
  • Duration- 4-6 hrs
Salmeterol
  • Trade name- Serevent (MDI), Diskus
  • Strength- 0.021 mg/puff/50mcg/puff
  • Effects-  Alpha 0, Beta1 +1, Beta2 +5
  • Dosage- 1-2 puffs Q12/Diskus 1 puff Q12
  • Duration- 12 hrs
Fluticasone propionate/ Salmeterol
  • Trade name- Advair Diskus
  • Strength- 100mcg/50mcg, 250mcg/50mcg, 500mcg/50mcg
  • Dosage- 1 puff Q12
Formoteral
  • Trade name- Foridil Aerolizer
  • Strength- 12mcg per dose
  • Effects- Alpha 0, Beta1 +1, Beta2 +5
  • Dosage- 1 inhalation twice a day
  • Duration- 12hrs
Atropine mechanism of action
The competitive inhibition of Ach. at the muscarinic site. Blocks SLUD response
Ipatropium (Antimuscarinic)
  • Parasympatholytic (Anticholinergic)
  • Trade name- Atrovent
  • Strength- 0.025% W/V or 0.0125% W/V
  • Dosage- 1-2ml in NS Q 4-6hrs
  • Duration- 4-6 hrs
  • Same mechanism as Atropine w/o side effects
  • Only side effect is dry mouth
Tiotropium
  • Trade name- Spiriva
  • Strength- DPI 18ug/inhalation
  • Dosage- 1 inhalation daily
  • Duration- 24 hrs
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