by vilka9


keywords:
Bookmark and Share



Front Back
what changes with learning? 
Behavior or the potential to act differently.
Learning can modify what and what?
Self and Environment
what changes behavior
Experience
learning helps us with what? 
Survival
What is adaptation? 
Reflexes,
Fixed action patterns (instincts)
General behavioral traits
Learning
What are the differetn kinds of learning? 
CLassical conditioning
operant conditioning
Modeling, imitation and social learning
what are 2 theories of learning?
stimulus substitution theory
preparatory response theory
what is Stimulus Substitution Theory
Responding in old ways to new stimuli
What is Preparatory Response Theory?
Response that prepares an organism for the appearence of the Unconditioned Stimulus
what is One-Shot Learning?
the bond between the stimulus and response is established the first time
How can a bond b/w the stimulus and response be strengthened? 
by being exercised and practiced
All about 3 things:
Frequently,
Recently,
Vigorously
What leads to learning?
Effects
What type of effects?
Satisfying effects, annoying effects

Reward vs Punishment.
what is the hardware of learning?
Nature
Software of leanring
Nurture
What are some Adaptive Schemas?
Useful accurate and uptodate
what are some maladaptive schemas?
defeating, distorting, out-of-date
what is a model?
Something you imitate
What are 3 types of intelligence?
IQ-intellectual (head)
EQ- emotional/social (heart)
SQ- Somatic (body)
What are 7 kinds of smart?

VMVMKII
Verbal,
Mathematical/logical,
visual
, musical,
kinaesthetic,
interpersonal,
intrapersonal.
What is Weber's Law
JND are based on a constant proportion of a stimulus
Classical Conditioning
conditioning an unconditioned stimulus to cause a conditioned response that is the same as the unconditioned response but brought on by a new stimulus (hence conditioned response)
Unconditioned stimulus
something that brings about an unconditioned response, like meat causing salivation.
Conditioned stimulus
a new stimulus that still brings about the unconditioned response like a bell causing salivation.
Conditioned response
the new response created by the conditioned stimulus, same as unconditioned response.
Reflex
simple unlearned stimulus-response link such as salivating in response to food in one’s mouth.
Reflex Examples 
  • Sucking reflex—infants suck when mouth is stimulated
  • Moro reflex-infant’s startle reaction, throwing out the arms and feet symmetrically and then pulling them back in.

Introceptive conditioning
  • conditioning of actions involving glands or involuntary muscles.
  • Taste Aversion—powerful disinclination to eat or drink something
Contiguity
simultaneous or nearly simultaneous occurrence of events. Event paring
Reinforcement
  • effect of a reinforcer, something that will increase the probability of an event to occur. Like receiving a reward for an action or satisfying a basic need.
Contingency
contiguity does not imply contingency, contingency is the occurrence of an event depends on the occurrence o f the other
Simultaneous pairing
the presentation of the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus at exactly the same time in classical conditioning.
Delayed pairing
CS is presented before the US and continues during presentation of the US
Trace pairing
CS starts and ends before the US so that there is a very brief time lapse between the 2
Backward pairing
us has already been presented and removed before presentation of CS.
Acquisition
same as the term learning. Might be used to signify the formation of associations among stimuli or between responses and their consequences
Learning Curves
a graphic representation of the acquisition of a learned response as a function of variables like number of trials, reinforcement, or strength of stimuli.
Extinction
the cessation of a response following repeated presentations of the CS without the US.
Spontaneous recovery
the apparently spontaneous reappearance of response that had previously been extinguished.
Stimulus generalization
transference of a response from one stimulus to a similar stimulus.
Stimulus discrimination
  • making different responses in closely related situations, thus providing evidence of discriminating among the stimuli. Opposite of generalization.
Second order conditioning (higher order conditioning)—
forming of associations between the CS and other stimuli that take the place of the US (typically other stimuli that have been  paired with the US)
Behaviorism
concern with the observable aspects of behavior
Little Albert
11 month old boy that was conditioned to be afraid of rats after they have been paired with a loud noise this eventually became generalized to anything that was white and fluffy.
Transfer
generalization or making of similar responses for a variety of related stimuli
Counterconditioning
a behavior modification technique in which stimuli associated with an undesirable response are presented below threshold or at times when the undesirable response is unlikely to occur. Objective is to condition a desirable response to replace the undesirable one.
Nature-nurture controversy
  • whether genetics (nature) or environment (nurture) is more responsible for determining development. Also called the heredity-environment question.
Eugenics
a form of genetic engineering that selects specific individuals for reproduction. Although widely accepted and practiced with animals, the concept raises many serious moral and ethical questions when applied to humans
x of y cards Next > >|