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Define hyper resonant
The sound produced over emphysematous lungs or pneumothorax. (Louder)
Define resonant
The sound produced over normal lung tissue.
Impact on fremitus by disease
  • Pnuemonia, actelectasis, lung mass increases fremitus
  • Pleural effusion, pleural thickening and pnumothorax decrease fremitus
Fremitus is more pronounced in ______  ______
Upper chest. Less pronounced at bases
Vocal fremitus
  • form of tactile fremitus
  • Vibration produced by patient speaking
  • use "99" felt using hands
What is fremitus ?
  • Vibration caused by air moving through the airways transmitted through chest wall.
  • Since you fell vibration referred to as tactile fremitus
Normal Breath Sounds- Vesicular
  • Heard over peripheral lung areas
  • Whispering wind
Normal Breath Sounds - Bronchial
  • heard over sternum
  • Tubular
Normal Breath Sounds- Bronchovesicular
  • Heard on either side of sternum or between scalpue
  • Combination of Vesicualr and Bronchial sounds
Normal Breath Sounds- Tracheal
  • Heard over trachea
  • Harsh tubular
Define Auscultation
Listening for sounds in the body to define a condition.
Abnormal Breath Sounds- Wheezes
  • High pitched continuous sound
  • higher in pitch and lower in intensity toward end of forced expiration
  • mainly asthma but also emphysema, CHF, partial obstruction of airway
  • Cause related to Bernoulli's principle
Abnormal Breath Sounds- Stridor

  • crouplike sound usually heard without stethoscope

  • Usually loudest on inspiration

  • indicitive of croup, upper airway obstruction, foreign body aspiration, laryngeal tumors

  • If severe sternal retraction can occur

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