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Circulation to the head and neck is supplied by what
common carotid artery
What does the common carotid artery split into
1. internal carotid artery 2. External carotid artery
what supplies the structures within the cranium including the eye and related structures
internal carotid artery
what supplies the superficial areas of teh head and neck and small portion of ocular adnexa
external carotid artery
Where does the internal carotid artery enter
carotid canl in the petrous portion of temporal bone
Where does the internal carotid artery go after leaving the carotid canal
cavernous sinus
Where does it exit the sinus
through the roof of the sphenoid
What cranial nerve closely adheres to lateral border of internal carotid IN the sinus
Abducens
What wraps itself around the internal carotid artery
plexus of sympathetic nerves from superior cervical ganglia
what two cranial nerves leaves the sinus with the internal carotid artery
II Optic, III Oculomotor
What is it called wehn there is compression due to optic nerve from a certain hardened artery and could be a differential diagnosis when optic nerve head atrophy accompanies a field defect.
Sclerosis of the internal carotid artery
What is the main blood supply to the globe adn adnexa
opthalmic artery
What are the nine branches from opthalmic artery
1. Central Retinal Artery 2. Lacrimal Artery 3. Ciliary Arteries 4. Ethmoid Arteries 5. Supraorbital Arteries 6. Musclular arteries 7. Medial Papebral Arteries (superior and inferior) 8. Supratrochlear Artery 9. Dorosnasal Artery
What is the first artery off the ophthalmic
central retinal artery
The central retinal artery enters into globe from where
inside the meningeal sheath of optic nerve
What does the central retinal artery do while in optic nerve
supply blood to optic nerve and pia
How many mm behind globe does central retinal artery enter
10 to 12
How does the central retinal artery branch once in the retina
superior and inferior branches both lead to nasal and temporal branches (page 9)
What happens in a disease like arteriosclerosis in arteries found in the retina.  The artery may compress the vein at crossing points and edema may development.
Retinal Venous Branch Occlusions
What artery is second of the opthalmic artery
lacrimal artery
What structures does it supply
lacrimal gland
What artery off the lacrimal artery may branch and course backward, depart via the superior orbital fissure and anastomose with middle meningeal artery from external carotid artery
recurrent mingeal artery
branches from lacrimal artery and departs via zygomaticotemporal artery foramen
zygomaticotemporal artery
What does zygomaticotemporal artery anastimose with
branches of external carotid artery
branches from lacrimal artery and departs via zygomaticofacial foramen
zygomaticofacial artery
what does zygomaticofacial artery anastomose with
branches of external carotid artery
What do the terminal branches of lacrimal artery supply
upper and lower eyelids, lateral palpebral arteries, adn conjunctiva
The short ciliary arteries enter the globe where and how...
1-2 branches turn into 10-20 branches around the optic nerve called circle of Zinn
What do the short ciliary arteries supply
choroidal stroma
The two long posterior ciliary arteries enter where and anastomose to make what
enter lateral and medial to short ciliary nerves, anastomose with anterior ciliary arteries to make major circle of the iris
Before anastomosing what do the long posterior arteries supply
ciliary body, and anterior choroid
What is the dye used to help evaluate arteries and veins and what is teh procedure used
fluorescene Angiography
How does the dye enter
internal carotid artery, passes into the opthalmic artery, and then to the posterior ciliary arteries.  Fills before central retinal artery
How do you know if there are defects in RPE
if dye leaks into the retina before retinal vessels fill
What are the two branches off the opthalmic artery that enter the ethmoid bone
1. Posterior ethmoid artery 2. anterior ethmoid artery
Where does posterior ethmoid artery supply
posterior ethmoid sinus, sphenoid sinus, upper nasal cavity
Where does the anterior ethmoid artery supply
anterior and middle ethmoid sinus, sphenoid sinus, frontal sinus, nasal cavity, and skin of nose
What is the pathway of the supraorbital artery?
travels over the superior ocular muscles, joins supraorbital nerve, passes through supraorbital foramen
What does the supraorbital muscle supply
superior rectus, superior oblique, levator, periorbita
What does supraorbital artery anastimose with
supratrochlear artery and arteries of external carotid
Why can't we talk about the supply to muscles?
Too much variability.  Maybe lateral and medial artery of opthalmic
Where do anterior ciliary arteries come from
arteries that supply the rectus muscles
Where do they peirce the sclera
just shy of limbus
Where do teh ciliary arteries send branches
bulbar and limbal conj., major arterial circle of iris
Usually there are two anterior ciliary arteries with each rectus muscle.  Which only has one
Lateral Rectus
mild corneal involvement, the superficial blood vessels injected, the vessels move with conj movement and can be blanched with topical vasoconstrictor
conjunctivitis
found in deeper sclera, and episcleral vessels are injected.  do not move are not blanched
uveitis
Where does the medial palpebral arteries branch from
ophthalmic artery
What do the two medial palpebral branches supply
the superior adn inferior eyelids
What do the two medial palpebral branches anastomose with
lacrimal artery to form palpebral arcades
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