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What are the four basic concepts in radiation protection?
1.) Quantity (remove contaminated clothes and wash contamination from the body), 2.) Time, 3.) Distance, 4.) Shielding
What are the four main types of radioactive emissions?
1.) alpha particles, 2.) beta particles, 3.) gamma rays, 4.) neutrons
Give two (of three listed) examples of materials capable of blocking Alpha particles.
1.) intact human skin, 2.) a sheet of paper, 3.) a rubber glove
Give two examples (of five listed) of materials capable of blocking Beta particles.
1.) thin plastic, 2.) glass, 3.) aluminum (six millimeters), 4.) metal alloys, 5.) wood (some particles can be stopped by human skin)
Give two (of three listed) examples of materials capable of blocking Gamma rays.
3.) concrete (three feet), 2.) lead (six inches), 3.) iron
What process produces Radon gas?
the decay of uranium (found in nearly all soils)
The majority of firefighter deaths are due to ___ and ___.
heart attacks; traffic accidents
What does "OSHA" stand for?
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSHA is part of what government institution?
U.S. Department of Labor
Federal OSHA guidelines are set forth in ___ CFR, with most of the firefighting regulations being covered in sections ___ and ___.
29; 1901; 1910
What does "HRA VEBA" stand for?
Health Reimbursement Account, Voluntary Employees' Beneficiary Association
Station 84, and rigs numbered with 83 and 84 all belong to the ___ fire department.
If you have to raise your voice in order to be heard a few feet away over noise, it is probably close to a(n) ___ decible level.
How may aircraft be communicated with when fire tactical channels are busy or when the aircraft does not have access to those frequencies?
via handheld aircraft radio (B66, B61, R61, B71, R71, HZ69, Ops Chief; use channel 1)
Sprayed-on asbestos insulation was banned by the EPA in what year?
What is the OSHA PEL for asbestos?
0.1 f/cc average over an eight hour period of time
Name three (of four listed) diseases which can be caused by exposure to asbestos.
asbestosis, lung cancer, digestive system cancer, mesothelioma
What is the difference between asbestosis and mesothelioma?
asbestosis is a scarring of the lungs, while mesothelioma is a rare cancer that can attack the lining of the lungs or abdomen
What asbestos-related disease is responsible for most asbestos-related deaths? Which is responsible for the least amount?
lung cancer (20-25%); mesothelioma (2%)
___ has the highest death rate of all the asbestos diseases.
lung cancer
What is an alpha particle comprised of?
two neutrons and two protons (plus-two positive charge)
How far can alpha particles travel in air?
only a few centimeters
How far can beta particles travel in air?
several meters
How far can gamma rays travel in air?
hundreds to thousands of meters
Except for originating from a nucleus rather than an outer shell, gamma rays are identical to ___.
The affect of radiation on the skin cells is the same as ___.
thermal burns (no difference in appearance, cannot be differentiated by tests)
Which heals faster, a radiation burn or a thermal burn?
Radiation follows the ___ law, for if you double your distance from the source, you have 1/4th the exposure.
inverse square
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