by vilka9


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What was Leon Festinger's Original Definition of Dissonance?
A drive or Feeling of discomfort, caused by holding 2 or more inconsistent cognitions
What is Aronson's later revision to Cognitive Dissonance?
Dissonance is caused by performing an act that is discrepant from one's (typically positive) self-concept
Give 3 ways you can reduce Dissonance...
Change behavior
Change cognitions
Add new cognitions--brings inconsistent cognitions in line with each other
What is an External Justification?
Explanation for dissonant personal behavior that resides outside the individual. IE to receive a large reward or avoid a severe punishment
What is internal justification?
Reduce dissonance by changing something about oneself (IE attitude or behavior)
The  experiment done by Festinger and Carlsmith with the boring tasks, the students in the $20 condition had a large what?
External Justification
The Results of the $1 group had a small ____ _____
External Justification
What were the results
people who received an abundance of external justificaiton for lying told the lie but didnt beliive it, but those who told the lie without a great deal of external justification suceeded in convincing themselves that what they said was close to the truth
Low justification results in what?
High Dissonance
Study done by Zimbardo (pg198) army reservists asked to eat fried grasshoppers. reservesist who ate grasshoppers at request of a stern, unpleaseant officer(increased/decreased) liking for grasshoppers far more than when offered by the pleasant officer. Describe the External/Internal Justifications.
Increased.

Mean Officer: low External; High Internal
Nice officer: High External; Low internal (didn't like the grasshoppers as much)
Describe Effort Justification
Increased liking for something we work hard to attain
How did Michael Payne (Ford Taurus) justify his behavior to himself?
Ended up buying  car from advantage auto sales
Describe Insufficient Punishment
The dissonance aroused when individuals lack sufficient external justification for having resisted a desried activity or object, usually results in devaluing the forbidden activity or object (internal justificatioN)
Kids given a mild threat experienced _____ justification and the results were more/less lasting contrasted to the other
Internal, MOre long lasting
How do i get someone to do something only once?
Promise large reward or threaten severe punishment
How do I get somebody committed to an attitude or behavior?
Offer a smaller reward or punishment that will lead to moementary compliance, the greater the eventual change and it will be more permanent
what is Choice Justification?
Justify the choice or decision you have made to yourself and no matter what it is you will feel better about it
What is Post Decision Dissonance Reduction?
Dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devaluating the rejected alternatives
What is the Self-Affirmation Theory?
People try to view themsevles as good, competent and moral.
WHat happens when you threaten people's self affirmation?
1. deal directly with threat (smoking=quit smoking)
2. Affirm themselves in an unrelated domain (don't quit smoking but throw all efforts into being good student)
What is Counter-Attutudinal Advocacy?
Publicly advocating something counter to what we believe or how we actually behave arouses dissonance.
Give an example of Counter-Attiduinal Advocacy
Giving safe sex speech when they don't practice it themselves. They can reduce dissonance indirectly by donating money to help homeless OR they can purchase condoms. one group can only donate, the other can do both.
What were the results?
When given 1 choice, they helped the homeless, 2 choices, the bought condoms.

Donating money helps ppl feel better about themselves
How do people prefer to deal with threats to their self-esteem?
Deal directly with it. If that is unavailable, they affirm themselves in unrelated domains
What is the Self-Evaluation Maintenance Theory?
Focuses on dissonance with interpersonal relationships.

people act in ways to maintain self-esteem
What are 3 variables of interest in Self-evaluation maintenance theory?
1. closeness to other person
2. relevance of activity to self-esteem
3. performance level on activity and performance relative to other person
What is Reflected Glory?
Essentialy being happy for someone, BUT only if you are close to the other person, the activity is NOT central to our self-esteem and Performance of the other person is high/good
How would you experience dissonance in the reflected glory argument?
1.If you are Close to the other person
2.The activity IS central to our self esteem
3.The other person's performance is higher/better than our own.
What are 3 ways to reduce this dissonance?
1. Focus on other person--reduce closeness to other person
2. Focus on Own attitude--reduce centrality of activity to your self-esteem
3.Focus on Behavior--Outperform the other person
What are some implications for close relationships?
Parent/Child relationships--kid going into same career as parent
Sibling relationships
Two-Career Couples
Are people aware of self-esteem maintenance motives and how they operate?
NOT entirely.


How do we get dissonance reduction to work?
It is helpful if people do not know they are doing it .
What is Affective Forcasting?
People's predictions about their Rxns to future emotional events
What is an Impact Bias?
People overestimate the impact of future events on the intensity and duration of their emotional reactions
What is an example of affective forcasting--impact bias?
romantic breakup--you will be just as happy as before in the longterm
Sometimes its important to view the world in what kind of approach?
Social Cognition approach so we can view the world accurately
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