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State the two Major Functions of the Digestive System
1. Nutrient Intake
2. Waste elimination
Nutrient intake has several Steps what are they (the process of eating)
1. Prehension 2. Mastication 3.Deglutition 4. Emulsification 5. Hydrolysis 6.Absorption. 7. Waste Elimination
State the composition of the 4 major layers of the walls of the tubular digestive organs.
1. Mucosa
2. Sub-mucosa
3. Tunica Muscularis
4. Adventitia / Serosa
State the layers of mucosa from superficial to deep.

*Remember Mucosa is the innermost layer and surrounds the lumen.
1. Epithelium- protection and mucus secretion (in simple columnar epithelium)
2. Lamina Propria - C.T proper that physically supports the epithelium. Is highly vascular and serves as a pathway for nerve fibers.
3. Muscularis Mucosae- smooth muscle tissue surrounding the lamina propria. (Causes the folds)
Where is submucosa and what linings surround it?
Submucosa is the thick and vascular layer of tissue that surrounds the muscularis layer of mucosa.
it is surrounded by the tunica  muscularis.
What is a serous membrane (serosa)?
C.T. proper covered by a simple squamous epithelium called mesothelium.

Covers most linings of the alimentary canal.
What is it called when a serous membrane is not present?
Tunica adventicia
Define Mouth
The oral opening. It is only the opening the inside is the oral cavity.
Define Oral Cavity Proper
The space between all of the teeth.
Define Oral vestibule
The space between the lips cheeks and teeth.
Define Fauces (gullet)
The short tubular passageway that connects the oral cavity to the pharynx.

*the superior wall is formed by the anterior portion of the soft palate.
palatopharyngeal arches
posterior borders of the palate on each side of the palatine uvula.
What are the 6 types of papillae and what do they look like.
Filiform Papillae- Most numerous light colored hairlike.
Conical Papillae- look like large filiforms but are on the posterior aspect of the tongue.
Fungiform Papillae- Mushroom shaped and interspersed.
Lentiform papillae- resemble fungiforms are less elevated
Vallate Papillae- Large fungiforms poterior aspect very few.
Foliate Papillae- Edges of the tongue near the palatoglossal arches
State the permanent dental formula.
How many teeth does the average adult have?
2(I2/2 C1/1 P2/2 M3/3) =32
State the deciduous dental formula.
2( I2/2 C1/1 P2/2) =20

*children do not have molars.
1. Crown 2. Root 3. Periodontium 4. Neck 5. Enamel 6. Cementum 7. Dentin 8. Dental pulp 9. Canals of the roots
1. visible portion of a tooth 2. embedded portion occupying a dental alveolus 3. C.T. proper anchoring a tooth in it's socket 4. Junction of crown and roots 5. covers the crown (hardest substance in the body) 6. bone like C.T. to which periodontium attaches 7. Just deep to the enamel. Harder and denser than bone. Softer than enamel 8. Soft tissue in a tooth within the dental cavity

9. passages at the tips of roots. dental pulp comes through them
What age do the first decidous teeth erupt at?
about 6 months
At what age is a full set of deciduous teeth finally present?
usually by 2 years
At what age do the first permanent teeth erupt?
6 years
At what age is a full set of permanent teeth present?
age 13
Front teeth are also called..
Incisors (4 adjacent to the median plane)
Eye teeth are also called..
Canine teeth. One lateral to each set of Incisors (4 total)
Bicuspids are also called..
Premolar teeth 2 posterior to each canine (8 total)
Molar teeth
there are 3 posterior to each premolar in an adult.
*kids don't have these so we have 12 more teeth
Define pharynx and list its 3 parts
Pharynx- the organ which joins the fauces to the esophagus
1. Nasal (Nasopharynx)
2. Oral (Oropharynx)
3. laryngeal Laryngopharynx)
Name the 3 parts of the Esophagus
1. Cervical part- within the neck it joins the laryngeal part of the pharynx.
2. Thoracic part- Joins the cervical and abdominal parts.
3. Abdiominal part- joins the cardiac part to the stomach
Describe the tunica muscularis of the esophagus as it descends.
Upper part- skeletal muscle tissue
Central part - smooth and skeletal muscle tissue
Lowert part - smooth muscle tissue
Define Pylorus
The junction of the stomach with the duodenum
Define Pyloric Ostium
the opening at the bottom of the stomach controlled by the pyloric sphincter muscle.
Pyloric part of the stomach
Funnel shaped terminal portion
List the 3 main parts of the small intestine
1. Duodenum (12 in long)
2. Jejunum (8 feet long)
3. Ileum (12 feet long)
What is the ileocecal valve?
The part of the ileum that connects to the large intestine
What structures increase absorbtion in the small intestine?
Folds- increase surface area for absorption
Intestinal Villi- Increase surface area for absorption
Microvilli-Increase surface area for absorbtion
Intestinal glands- produce enzymes to aid in digestion

Please see the table in the book
4 major components of the large intestine..
1. Ascending colon
2. Transverse colon
3. descending colon
4. Sigmoid colon
What are the two last parts of the colon
The rectum (6 in) and Anal Canal (1 in)
the anus is where the anal canal opens.
List all parts of the alimentary canal (7)
1. oral cavity
2. fauces
3. pharynx
4. esophagus
5. stomach
6. small intestine
7. Large intestine
Name the 3 pairs of salivary glands and where they are located
1. Sublingual glands- located under the tongue
2.Parotid glands- located below and anterior to the ears. Duct is on the medial side of the teeth opposite the 2nd molar tooth.
3. Submandibular gland- medial to the left and right bodies of the mandible. ducts open at the left and right sublingual caruncles.
Name the lobes of the liver and where the gallbladder is located to them.
right lobe-gallbladder-quadrate lobe
Diagram and label the biliary duct system and a hepatic lobe
what are the 3 parts of the pancreas?
Head of the pancreas- widest part, is against the descending duodenum.
Body of the pancreas- extends to the left along the horizontal part of the duodenum.
Tail of the pancreas- the tapered left extremity
What 3 products does the pancreas produce
insulin, glucagon, pancreatic juice.
What are the 2 ducts of the pancreas?
Pancreatic duct- empties into the bile duct.
The accessory pancreatic duct- branches from the pancreatic duct and enters the duodenum seperately.
List the main cells in the pancreas?
Pacreatic Islets contain..

Alpha cells- produce glucagon
Beta cells- Secrete insulin
Abdominal Cavity
The space below the thorax and above the pelvis
a serous membrane that lines the abdominal and pelvis cavities and adheres to the organs within.
Peritoneal cavity
The potential space between the pareital and visceral peritoneum.
Define retroperitoneal.
organs with peritoneum only on their anterior surfaces.

kidneys, adrenal glands, abdominal portions of the aorta and inferior vena cava.
look at the charts on the developement of the digestive system
foregut midgut and hindgut derivatives.
Define harelip, cleft palate, malocclusion, gingivitis,periodontal disease, peptic ulcers, enterotomy, appendicitis, hernia, and peritonitis.
1. split lip
2. same as a harelip
3. improper tooth position
4. problems with the gums and teeth
5. inflammation of the gums
6. erosions in the stomach or duodenum due to acid
7. surgery to remove an obstruction
8. inflammation of the appendix
9. organs protruding through a muscle wall
10. inflammation of the peritoneal membrane
Why do we exist on this earth?
To feed and breed.
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