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Name the major parts of the respiratory system (In order that inspired air encounters them)
  • nose
  • nasal cavity
  • paranasal sinuses
  • larynx
  • trachea
  • bronchial tree
  • lungs
Differentiate the "Upper" and "lower" parts of the respiratory system
  • upper- nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, larynx
  • lower- trachea, bronchial tree, lungs
What are the functions of the respiratory system?
  • exchange of CO2 in the blood for O2
  • acid/ base balance- controls body pH
  • protective relfexes
  • vocolization
  • some in abdominal press and
  • olfaction
Which two functions of the respiratory system are also functions of the cardiovascular system?
  • O2/CO2 exchange
  • Acid/ base balance
Describe the various modified protective respiratory movements
  • coughing
  • sneezing
Describe the various modified non-protective respiratory movements
  • laughing
  • sobbing
  • sighing
  • yawning
  • hiccuping
  • valsalva maneuver
Differentiate nose and nasal cavity
  • A nose occupies the central position on the anterior aspect of the face. (External)
  • the Nasal cavity is (Internal) and is the passageway through the nose and superior to the palate.
What are the features of the nose?
  • root- superior portion that joins the inferior aspect of the forehead
  • bridge- anterior aspect along the midline
  • apex- the tip at the inferior end
  • wings- flared portions which surround the nasal openings
What are the features of the nasal cavity
  • nostrils (Nares)
  • nasal septum- divisions of R/L inside the nostrils
  • nasal vestibule- right inside the nostrils
  • nose hairs (vibrissae)- help filter foreign particulate matter
  • superior, middle, & inferior nasal meatus-
  • choana- an ipsilateral passageway which communicates withe the nasal part of the pharynx
How does the nasal septum and nasal conchae divide the nasal cavity into six meatus?
What are the four pairs of paranasal sinuses?
  • Maxillary
  • sphenoid
  • frontal
  • ethmoid
State the four word histological classification of respiratory epithelium
ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Name the seven openings into/ out of the pharynx
  • (2) posterior openings of the two halves of the nasal cavity (choanae)
  • (2) the pharyngeal openings of the left/ right auditory tubes
  • (1) the fauces (gullet)
  • (1) the esophagus
  • (1) the opening into the larynx (aditus laryngis)
which of the 7 openings into/ out of the pharynx are normally traversed by ingesta or inspired air?
Name the cartilages of the larynx and indicate which are paired
The 3 unpaired cartilages
  • thyroid
  • epiglottic
  • cricoid
The smaller carilages
  • arytenoid
  • corniculate
  • cuneiform
Explain how and why the vocal folds are tensed, abducted, and/ or adducted
tensed-
abducted- abduction  opens the rima glottidis and alows free movement of air through the larynx, and it is to inspire and expire during normal respiration
adducted- closes the rima glottidis
how does vocalization work?
  • slightly adbducting the vocal folds and expiring a stream of air between them
  • causes the vocal folds to vibrate
  • sounds of vibrations are modified by the tongue, teeth, lips, and paranasal sonuses to form individual "voices"
What is the role of cartilage in the wall of the trachea and bronchi?
Discuss the anatomy of the bronchial tree including:
  • principal
  • lobar, and
  • segmental bronchi
  • (R/L) Principal bronchi- the largest and attach to the tracheal bifurcation
  • Lobar bronchi- formed by the division of the principle bronchi. They enter and supply the individual lobes of the lungs
  • Segmental bronchi
how many lobar bronchi in each lung (Right/ Left)
  • Right side has 3
  • Left side only 2
Explain what the advantage is to have ciliated cell extend "deeper" into the bronchial passageways instead of goblet cells......
it insures that mucus will not be produced in areas that lack means (cilia) of moving it
What is the difference between bronchi and bronchioles.....
  • bronchi are passageways where cartilage is present
  • bronchioles are where the air passageways have no cartilage present
Name and define the four surfaces of a lung
  • Diaphragmatic- the inferior aspect and is adjacent to the diaphragm
  • Costal- encompasses the anterior, lateral, and posterior aspects which face the ribs
  • interlobar- surfaces between adjacent loves that face each other
  • mediastinal- the medial aspect of the lung which lies adjacent to the mediastinum
where is the hilum located?
  • what is the indentation called?
  • The helium is located on the mediastinal surface, and the heart causes an indentation
  • the indentation is called cardiac impression on the left lung the impression form sa concavity called the cardiac notch
What are the three layers of the pulmonary alveolus that 02 and CO2 must diffuse through?
  • respiratory epitheliocytes of the alveolar wall
  • thin layer of connective tissue proper
  • enodthelium forming the capillary wall
Name the structures which must be ligated (or tied off) and transected (severed) to perform a pulmonary lobectomy......
  • BE VERY SPECIFIC
What is the difference between the thorax and the thoracic cavity?
  • The Thorax is the regional section of the trunk
  • The Thoracic cavity is the organ-filled space within the thorax
What is the difference between the pleura and the pleural cavity?
  • Pleura is the serous membrane lining covering the walls of the thoracic cavity and invests the surfaces of the thoracic organs
  • Pleural cavity is the very small spaces between the visceral and parietal pleurae on each side
Define the two major subtypes of pleurae
  • visceral pleura- the pleura on the lungs
  • parietal pleura- the lining of the thoracic cavity
What are the three regional subdivisions of the parietal pleura?
  • diaphragmatic pleura- covering the superior aspect of the diaphragm
  • costal pleura- lines the thoracic wall
  • mediastinal pleura
Be able to draw and label the
  • Thorax
  • trachea
  • principal bronchi
  • lungs
  • diaphragm
  • heart
  • pleural membranes
  • paricardium
list the structures located totally within the thoracic cavity
  • heart
  • pericardial cavity
  • lungs
  • pleural cavities
  • lymph nodes
  • superior vena cava
list the structures that pass through the thoracic cavity
  • esophagus
  • thoracic duct
  • sympathetic trunks
  • vagal nerve trunks
list the structures enter and leave the thoracic cavity
  • trachea
  • inferior vena cava
  • right lymphatic duct
  • azygos vein
  • aorta
  • other vessels
Define Mediastinum
Where the thoracic cavity is completly divided
Which structures are included in the mediastinum
  • heart
  • esophagus
  • trachea
  • aorta
  • some vessels
  • thoracic duct
  • vagal nerves
  • and pleura that covers them
Name the three openings in the diaphragm
  • aortic hiatus
  • esophageal hiatus
  • vena caval foramen
  • Where is the aortic hiatus located?
  • What does the aortic hiatus transmit?
  • located in the posterior portion between the crura
  • transmits the desending aorta, azygos vein, and the throacic duct
Where is the esophageal hiatus located and what does it transmit?
  • located in the fleshy part of the left crus
  • transmits the esophagus and vagal nerve trunks
Where is the Vena caval foramen located and what does it transmit?
  • Located in the central tendon to the right of the median plane (AKA- caval foramen)
  • The vena caval foramen is the opening in which the inferior vena cava passes through
Explain the mechanics of respiration
  • inspiration  is effected by contraction of the diaphragm with some assistance from the muscles of teh thoracic wall
  • in the relaxed state the diaghragm assumes a dome-like state.
  • Contraction of the diaphragm flattens the cavity which in turn lengthens the toracic cavity which reduces the intrapleural pressure
  • Elevation of the rib cage by the scalenus and other muscles increases the diameter of the throacic cavity which further decreases the intraplural pressure, which in turn inflates  the lungs
  • Expiration is the exhale
What are two things that cause the lungs to have a tendancy to collapse?
  • The elastic tissue in their stroma
  • surface tension of the thin layer of fluid lining each aveolus
Define the four lung volumes
  • Tidal volume- the volume of air which is inspired and expired
  • Inspiratory reserve volume- the volume that can be forcefully inspired after a tidal inspiration (3000 ml)
  • expiratory reserve volume- the volume that can be forcefully exhaled after tidal expiration (1000ml)
  • residual volume- the amount of air that is left in the lungs after forcing all air possible
Define the four lung capasities
  • Vital capasity- the total amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled and exhaled
  • Total lung capasity- includes all four lung volumes
  • inspiratory capasity- the sum of the tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume
  • functional residual capacity- shte sume of the expiratory reserve volume and the residual volume
Explain the four lungs inter-relationships
Each lung "capasity" is a sum of two, three, or all four lung volumes
What is the physical movement of air into the lungs called?
Inspiration
Name the structures that grow horizontally to divide the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
The palatine shelves
Name the structure  that branches off the pharynx to form the lower respiratory system
laryngotracheal bud
Explain how to perform the abdominal thrust (Heimlich) maneuver
  • reach around victim's trunk position fist on the anterior abdomen just below the sternum
  • bear hug squeeze the fist into the abdomen squeezing the air out of the lungs
How can pneumothorax, hemothorax, or diaphragmatic hernia result in dyspnea?
  • Pneumothorax- is when air is introduced into the pleural cavities by either broken ribs or stabbing, gunshot wound, or cancer
  • Hemothorax- When blood enters the pleural cavity
  • Diaphragmatic hernia-a hernia where the liver, stomach and/or intestines can enter the thoracic cavity.
ALL resulting in difficulty breathing
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