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The former state religion of Japan and remains the most common name for the nation's non-Buddhist ethnic religious practices. It was formed from disparate local mythologies, beginning with the Kojiki of 712, into an imperial cult called State Shinto that solidified in the Meiji period.
Shinto - A spirit, god, or goddess of Shinto. Ex: a natural object, historical person, living person, ghost, thunder, emperor etc.
Shinto - "Shining in heaven"; goddess of the sun.
Shinto - the god of the moon in Shinto and Japanese mythology. Tsukuyomi angered Amaterasu when he killed Uke Mochi, the goddess of food.
Shinto - god of the sea and storms. Kami of wind.
Shinto - "Male who invites"; primordial male parent god.
Shinto - "Female who invites"; primordial female parent god.
New Year’s Festival
Shinto - “First visit” (hatsumōde) to Shinto shrine: wash hands and mouth (ex. of misogi; Molloy, p. 250); offer coins and prayer for happy, safe, prosperous year; drink rice wine; later – feast on “banquet food.”
A long-stemmed sacred pipe used primarily by many native peoples of North America; it is smoked as a token of peace.
A foretelling of the future or a discovery of the unknown by magical means.
Organic, integrated; indicating a complete system, greater than the sum of its parts; here, refers to a culture whose various elements may all have religious meaning.
The act of pouring a liquid as an offering to a god.
A human being who contacts and attempts to manipulate the power of spirits for the tribe or group.
sympathetic magic
An attempt to influence the outcome of an event through an action that has apparent similarity to the desired result — for example, throwing water into the air to produce rain, or burning an enemy's fingernail clippings to bring sickness to that enemy.
A strong social prohibition.
Animal (or image of animals) that is considered to be related by blood to a family or clan and is its guardian symbol.
the way the tradition describes the world, or understands reality (“the way things are”)
the capacity of the religion to save/deliver/liberate people
our tradition is right about truth and/or salvation, and other traditions are wrong; only members of our tradition can achieve salvation
our tradition is the most correct about truth and/or salvation; other traditions may be partially correct, but ours is still the best (it is possible that members of other traditions achieve salvation but usually only through our tradition); we are open to learning from other traditions
traditions are right about truth and/or salvation (lots of members of lots of different traditions can achieve salvation)
John Hick
a philosopher of religion and theologian. In philosophical theology, he has made contributions in the areas of theodicy, eschatology, and Christology, and in the philosophy of religion he has contributed to the areas of epistemology of religion and religious pluralism.
a Navajo girl's puberty ceremony
Enuma Elish
This epic, written about 1400 BCE, tells of the origins of the world order, how universe came into existence with Marduk, the patron deity of Babylon, as supreme god.
Apsu and Tiamat
the gods Apsu (fresh water) and Tiamat (the ocean). They are the parents of the first generation of gods. They beget Anshar, who begets Anu, who begets Ea, who begets Marduk
Enuma Elish Part 1
Young gods make noise, disturb the old water gods. Apsu decides to kill young gods, but Ea kills him first.
Enuma Elish Part 2
Tiamat decides to avenge Apsu’s death on the young gods, appoints a son, Qingu, to lead monsters in battle against young gods.
Enuma Elish Part 3
Ea’s son Marduk is special, offers to lead the young gods in the battle, if proclaimed king. Gods agree.
Enuma Elish Part 4
Marduk challenges Tiamat to single combat and defeats her. He tears apart her body (the sea) and creates an air bubble inside, where he forms the world, gives the young gods new functions in the universe. As afterthought, he creates humanity as slaves to grow food to feed the gods, so that “the gods may be at ease.”
Enuma Elish Part 5
Qingu is slain, and his blood is used to create humans. In appreciation, the gods build Marduk his great temple, the Esagila, at Babylon.
The Canaanite Combat Myth
Baal fights Yamm over the leadership of the divine council and defeats him. But Baal is not the creator god in Canaan--that is a god named El--so no creation in this myth. However, after Baal defeats Yamm, he builds his royal palace, i.e. his temple.
Canaanite God of the sea. AKA Lotan / Leviathan the sea monster.
Yahweh, fought with the Sea before creating the world, was popular in many, perhaps all, circles of Israelite society until the 6th century BCE.
Israelite Prophet
understood to be a messenger from Yahweh, a person given a special communication from God which he or she was to proclaim to the king, or the people, or in some cases, to a private individual.
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