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Body's use of foods after they have been digested, absorbed, and circulated to cells
food molecules enter the cells and undergo chemical change
breaks food molecules down, releasing stored energy; oxygen is used
builds up food molecules into complex substances
Functions of the liver
secretes bile, maintains normal blood glucose levels, metabolized carbohydrates, fats and proteins, and removes toxins from the blood
Describe glycolysis in carbohydrate metabolism
glycolysis changed glucose to pyruvic acid, it is anaerobic, yeilds small amounts of energy (transferred to ATP), and occurs in the cytoplasm
Describe Citric acid (Krebs) cycle in carbohydrate metabolism
citric acid cycle changes pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide, it is aerobic, it yeilds large amounts of energy (as high energy electrons), occurs in the mitochondria
When a phosphate group of ATP breaks off, what forms?
ADP and free phosphate group
What is the function of the electron transfer system?
immedicatly converts molecules into ATP, which serves as a direct source of energy
What is the difference between energy stored in ATP and energy stores in food molecules?
Energy stored in ATP is used instantly to do cellular work, and energy stored in food molecules goes through catabolism then gets transferred into ATP molecules and then can be released
What is the normal amount of glucose in the blood?
80-110 mg in 100 ml of blood
List the hormones that increase the amount of sugar in the blood.
growth hormone, hydrocortisone, epinephrine, glucagon
What are fats catabolized for?
energy, if there are inadequate amounts of glucose
What are fats anabolized for?
to form adipose tissue
Proteins are primarily anabolized to build what?
build up of amino acids into complex protein compounds needed in the body
When does protein catabolism occur?
used when fat reserves are low, usually during starvation.
What is a nonessential amino acid?
can be missing from the diet, because they are made by the body
What is an essential amino acid?
must be in the diet
Vitamins are what kind of molecules?
Organic molecules that are needed only in small amounts
Name two water soluble and three fat soluble vitamins
water soluble are B and C, fat soluble are A, D, E, K
Minerals are what kind of molecules?
Inorganic molecules found naturally in the earth and are required by the body for normal function
Name at least three minerals needed by the body
Sodium, calcium, iron, potassium, zinc, magnesium, phosphorus, etc.
What is basal metabolic rate (BMR)?
rate of metabolism when a person is lying down but awake and not digestin food and when the environment is comfortable warm
What is total metabolic rate (TMR)?
the total amount of energy, expressed in calories, used by the body per day
What maintains a regular temperature?
What processes can blood loose heat?
radiation, conduction, convection, and evaporation
describe radiation
flow of heat waves from the blood
describe  conduction
transfer of heat energy to the skin then the external environment
describe convection
transfer of heat energy to air that is continually flowing from the skin
describe evaporation
absorption of heat by water (sweat) vaporization
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