by gringo


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What are the most potent diuretics?
Loop diuretics
What is the PO dosage for Lasix (furosimide)?
20-80 mg onset 30-60° duration 6-8 hr
What is the IV dosage for Lasix (furosimide)?
20-40 mg onset 5° duration 2 hr
What is the action of loop diuretics?
increases renal excretion of Na+ and water in Loop of Henle
What are the two  side/adverse effects of loop diuretics?
- hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia
- dehydration, hypotension, H/A, dizziness
Name 1 Drug/Drug interaction of loop diuretics.
Hypokalemia may ↑ risk of digoxin toxicity and ↑ risk of arrhythmia in patients taking drugs that prolong the QT interval.
What are three nursing implications of loop diuretcis?
- can be otoxiticity at high doses or w/rapid IVP
- monitor electrolytes
- teach pt to ↑ dietary K+ if suplemental K+ is not prescribed
What are the 12 patient teachings associated with loop diuretics?
• Expect increased urine output. • Take medication in the morning to avoid nighttime urination that could result in increased risk of injury. • Immediately report signs and symptoms such as muscle weakness or cramps and pulse changes, because these may indicate hypokalemia. • Take potassium supplements, if ordered, and eat potassium-rich foods. • Monitor blood pressure weekly and report substantial changes. I•Avoid foods high in sodium content such as canned foods, "fast" foods, and frozen dinners. • Check weight daily, and report a weight gain of 2 lb or greater in 24 hours, shortness of breath, or swelling of ankles. • Keep all scheduled laboratory visits for electrolyte status testing. • If diabetic, monitor glucose levels closely,because diabetic therapy may need to be adjusted. • Report any tenderness or pain in joints, which may indicate gout. • Report any change in hearing. • Change positions slowly to avoid dizziness.
What is hypokalemia?
low potassium (k+) <3.5 mEq/L
What is hyponatremia?
low sodium (Na+)
What is otoxicity?
ringing in the ears or heaing loss
What risk is associated with hypokalemia?
increase in risk of dysrhythmias
Name a thiazide diuretic.
HCTZ (hydrochlorothiazide)
What is the action of thiazide diuretics?
increase renal excretion of Na+ and water
What are four side/adverse effects of thiazide diuretics?
- hypokalemia
- hyponatremia
- hypocalcemia
- increase WBG (whole blood glucose)
What are three patient teachings for thiazide diuretics?
- increase dietary K+
- diabetes - monitor WBG  more frequently
- report joint pain
Name one potassium sparing diuretic.
Aldactone (spironolactone)
What is the action for potassium-sparing diuretics?
increase renal excretion of Na+ but retains K+
What are five nursing considerations for potassium-sparing diuretics?
- Monitor K+
- ACE inhibitors (angiotensin converting enzyme) and ARBs (angiotensin II receptor blockers) increase risk of hyperkalemia
- teach pt to avoid excess potassium intake
- report abdominal cramping, severe NVD, irregular HR
- Avoid salt substitutes (potassium chloride)
What is a common urological condition caused by a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland in aging men? 
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH)
What causes Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH)?
exposure to testosterone
In Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy, as the prostate enlarges, it does what?
it constricts the urethra which leads to urinary difficulties
What are four signs and symptoms of Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy?
- frequency (as often as q 1-2 hrs)
- nocturia, urgency, hesitancy
- sensation that the bladder is not empty even after urinating
- weak urine stream, dribbling urine, straining in order to urinate
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) can lead to what?
UTI or renal failure
Name a Benign Prostratic Hypertrophy (BPH) medication that is a alpha 1 adrenergic blocker class med. 
Flomax (tamsulosin)
What is the action of Flomax (tamsulosin)?
relaxes smooth muscle in urethra and prostate gland (decreases urinary obstruction)
Name 5 side effects of Flomax (tamsulosin) (alpha 1 adrenergic blocker).
- orthostatic hypotension
- H/A
- Dizziness
- reflex tachycardia
- ejaculatory dysfunction
What are two patient teachings for Flomax (tamsulosin) (alpha 1 adrenergic blocker)?
- takes 1-2 weeks to reach full effectiveness
- change position slowly
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