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What is digestion
To break something big into something small
What is the first function in digestion
what is the number 1 most important thing americans don't do when digesting
chew their food
what is in saliva that breaks down food
alpha amaylse
What does alpha amalyse break down?
What kind of movement in the esophagus do you use to move food down the tube
peristalic motion
Which cells are found within the stomach
principle cells/ parietal cells/ mucus secreting cells
what is the purpose of the mucous in the stomach?
creates a protective lining in the stomach from the pepsin
Pepsinogen and hydrocloric acid combine to form what?
What breaks down lipids or fat
bile and pancreatic juice
where does fat digestion occur
the beginning of the small intestines
What is the "special gate keeper" that does from the stomach to the small intestines?
Which enzyme dumps into the small intestines to break down the food the rest of the way?
Pancreatic juice
where is bile made
what is the name for the initial breakdown of lipids?
what is the most powerful digestive enzyme in the entire body?
pancreatic juice
what does pancreatic juice do
it finishes the digestion of lipids, carbs, and proteins
what is food called

  • When in the mouth/ esophagus

  • stomach

  • small intestines

  • bolus

  • ingesta

  • chyme

Where do we send the nutrient from the small intestines
the blood absorbs the nutrients and sends it through the hepatic portal system where it filters the nutrients
where do nutrients go once modified
into the second capillary bed and distributed to the body in a usable form
What is the main function of the large intestine
absorption of fluids
what occurs in the large intestines when you have diarrhea
you mess up the motility of the intestines so it can't squeeze the material correctly and absorb fluids as it is intended to
how much urine would a person who is getting an adequate amount of fluids produce?
1.44 liters
how many 8 oz glasses of water should you drink a day?
64 oz (8 glasses)
name the 4 layers of the gut wall

  • mucous layer

  • submucosa layer

  • tunica muscularis layer

what is the layer of the gut wall that directly touches the food? Where is it in proximity to the other layers?

  • mucous layer

  • it is the deepest layer of the gut wall

are the layers and textures all the same throughout the digestive system?
NO! the layers are all the same but the texture differs
What are the basic parts of the mucous layer

  • epithelial lining of the mucosa,

  • lamina propria,

  • muscular mucosa

What is epithelial lining of the mucosa?
the layer of the mucosa that is directly in contact with food
What is the muscular mucosa?
The superficial most layer of the mucous layer, with smooth muscle tissue.
It creates wrinkles within the tube
Which layer of the gut wall is superficial to the mucosa?
What are some features of the submucosa?

  • Large vessels

  • fat

  • Nerves

What is the main purpose of the submucosa
to support the mucosa layer and the tunica muscularis
What are the two muscle layers of the tunica muscularis?

  • circular muscles

  • longitudinal muscle layer

How many layers does the digestive tract have EVERYWHERE?
Which part of the digestive tract has an additional layer of muscle? And what is it called?

  • The stomach

  • it's called the oblique layer

When and only when can the food from the stomach be passed on?
Once the food is mixed to an even consistency
What happens once the food in your stomach is mixed to an even consistency?
your brain is then triggered to open the pyloric sphinchter muscle
What is the outer most layer of the gut wall called if the organ is touching a serous membrane?
Viseral peritoneum
What is the outer most layer of the gut wall called if the organ is NOT touching a serous membrane?
Where is there no serous membrane?
in the mediastinum
What is different about the esophagus in the mediastinum?
There is no serous membrane
hat does retro-peritoneum mean?
it means it is behind the peritoneum
When having a surgery what are you always running the risk for?
Peritonitis- which is an infection of the serous membrane
What is the double fold mucous membrane under your tongue?
The labrial frenulum
Which structure is at the base of the frenulum?
A caruncle structure with two holes to allow saliva into the oral cavity proper
What is the oral cavity proper?
the oral space around your tongue
What is the oral vestibule?
the area in your mouth between your cheeks/ gums/ teeth
What is the parotid gland? And where is it located?

  • Salivary gland

  • it dumps into the oral vestibule

What is the gland that gives rise to the oral cavity proper?

  • submandibular/ sublingual gland

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