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What are the cells most likely to be tumor cells in CNS
Glial Cells
What is actual extra fluid in the brain
Cerebral Edema
What is cerebral edema caused by
Trauma or closed head injury
How do you treat it?
taking bone out of skull
What happens to blood flow in cerebral edema
decrease blood flow
What is caused by overproduction or blocking of CSF
Hydrocephalus
What is main cause of hydrocephalus
obstruction to flow of CSF at arachnoid granulations
What is this called when it can't get out of ventricles
Noncommunicating
What is this called when it can't get to arachnoid granulations
communicating
What happens in brith trauma
cephala hematoma, or accumulation of blood (not in brain)
What are different ways to get closed head injury
impact, hammer, or rotational like a car accident causes shearing
injury at site of impact is called
coup
injury on opposite side of impact
counter coup or contra coup
What eye injury can you get from frontal injury
cortical blindness in occipital area
What is it called when you get a bruise on the brain
contusion
what is it called when you get a rip of the brain tissue
laceration
what is bleeding of the brain
hemorrage
What is it called when you have a bleed above arachnoid mater and below drua mater
subdural hematoma
Where do you see subdural bleeds
elderly, alcoholics
What happens in subdural bleed
veins get ripped out of bone and hemorrage occurs
Subdural hemotoma: veins or arteries, trauma needed?
veins, no
What is it called when you get bleeding above dura mater
epidural hemotoma
Where does the bleed come from
middle meningeal artery
How does this occur
trauma required
If you get bleeding between pia mater adn arachnoid mater...
subarachnoid hemorrhage
Where does the bleed happen from
circle of willis
What causes it?
High Blood Pressure
What are the two types of hypoxic vascular types
1. TIA 2. Stroke
What does TIA stand for
Transient Ischemic Attack
How is TIA different from stroke
stroke leaves the patient with residual loss
What does infarction mean
death of part of brain
How is vision affected in TIA
only lasts five minutes so it could affect retina
Why is the circle of Willis so important
it keeps a double blood supply so hypoxia isn't as bad.
What are the grape like clusters that form on circle of willis
Berry Aneurisms
What causes berry aneurisms
HTN or weak walls of artery.
If Berry Aneurism bursts where is the bleed
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
What happens to arteries with long term HTN
thicken, and vessels become narrower
What happens if you suddenly get a low blood pressure
brain tissue dies
Holes are formed in brain after this happens, what is it called
lacunar infarcts
What is it called when a tissue in brain needs both vessels to live and one of them gives out
watershed infarcts
What causes a prolonged hypoxic event
atherosclerosis of arteries.
What is it called when you get a direct infection of the brain
encephalitis
What is it called when you get an infection of the brain coverings
Meningitis
What causes a bacterial meningitis
CSF infected from blood
What happens to Protien, Glucose, and cell count in bacterial meningitis
Protein up, glucose down, cell count up (PMNs)
What happens if left untreated...(3 things)
scarring, epilepsy, abcess
What viruse could cause meningitis
WNV,
What happens to protein, glucose, and cell count in viral meningitis
Cell count goes up (lymphocytes), glucose no change, protein little change.
Any scarring in viral version
no
What do you get with bacterial infection from blood stream
abcess of cerebrum
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