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Which level is CO2 picked up?
The capillary level
Which level is O2 pick up ?
The capillary level
What happens to the CO2 that we breathe out?
It is picked up by the pores under the leaves.
What is the pulmonary alveoli?
Air sockets in the lungs (about a million in each lung) HUGE surface area.
Protective reflexes
Cough Sneeze
Non-protective reflexes
Laugh, Cry, Sigh, Yawn, Hiccup, Valsalva maneuver
How does the air move in the nasal concha?
It turbinates the air and spins out the heavy particulates into the mucus lining.
How many paranasal sinuses
4
Where are the paranasal sinuses found?
2-Ethmoid sinuses, 2-sphenoid sinuses, 2-maxilla sinuses, 2-frontal sinuses
What is the definition of sinuses?
Empty air sac that lighten the skull.
What is the difference between respiratory epithelium and respiratory epitheliocytes?
Respiratory epithelium- lines the air conducting passageways of the respiratory system. Respiratory epitheliocytes-simple squamous epithelium that line the pulmonary alveoli.
What do respiratory epitheliocytes make?
They make the walls of the pulmonary alveoli.
What is respiratory epitheliums function?
It is ciliated and helps move the junk up and out.
What do goblet cells secrete?
Mucous
The other two pairs of cartilage are?
Corniculate and cuneiform cartilages
What is the purpose of the Corniculate and Cuneiform cartilages?
For humans it is bascially vestiges and do not have a function.
Where can you find the Cuneiform cartilages?
They are suspended in the epiglottic fold.
What is the purpose of the Arytenoid cartilages?
It is very important for vocal folds.
What are the functions of the laryngeal cartilages?
They form the laryngeal cavity help protect vocal folds inside and may help move the vocal folds.
What do we need to do to breathe normally? Abduct or Adduct
completely abduct the vocal folds.
Homan's favorite opening in the whole world?
Aditus Laryngis (Found in the pharynx opening to the larynx.
The larynx contains how many layers of cartilage?
3 Large unpaired, 3 paired cartilage
Which cartilage is the largest?
The thyroid cartilage (Thyro means shield)
What is the anterior most projection of the larynx?
Laryngeal prominence
There are superior and inferior horns of the thyroid cartilage.
Epiglottis cartilage
Looks like a shoe horn
What is the purpose of the epiglottis?
A flap of tissue the closes the respiratory opening when swallowing
What is the membrane that comes down to cover the opening of the trachea?
Aryepiglottic folds
What is the purpose of the fold?
The cartilage and the membrane seals the trachea.
What is cricoid cartilage?
Shaped like a CTR shield, then part is anterior, thick part is posterior.
Arytenoid cartilage?
A largest of the paired cartilages, posteriorly positioned, vocal cords attach to both cartilages.
Why do boys voices squeak when going through puberty?
Because the rapid growth of cartilage pulls on the chords of the larynx causing a high pitch "squeaks"
Why don't women voices squeak?
Because our bone/cartilage growth is more gradual that quick.
What makes the sound when speaking?
The mucous membrane or vocal folds not the vocal ligaments.
What are the vocal folds?
Mucous membranes that flap over the vocal ligaments.
What helps to manipulate the sounds in our voice?
The arytenoid muscles.
When you swallow what goes up and what goes down when feeling your laryngeal prominence?
The laryngeal prominence goes up and the epiglottis goes down.
What is the rema glottidis or it could also be known as the glottis?
It is a slit between the right and left vocal folds.
How many cartilages compose the trachea?
16-20
When is the epiglottis open?
When we breathe.
When is the esophagus open?
When you are swallowing food.
What is the tracheal division called?
Tracheal bifurcation.
What is the purpose of the tracheal anular ligaments?
It holds the cartilages of the trachea together.
What are the first two major branches of the bronchial tree called?
Left and Right principal bronchi.
Which of the two principal bronchi is the longest?
The left side because it has to go further to the heart.
Which of the two are more vertical?
The right prinicpal bronchi.
Name the lobes of the left lung?
Superior and inferior lobe.
Name the lobes of the right lung?
Superior and inferior and middle lobe.
What takes the place of the middle lobe on the left lobe?
The heart.
What comes after the principal bronchi?
Left and Right lobar bronchi.
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