by tlucas


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DNA is a...
nucleic acid that contains genetic instructions (for the biological development of an organism).
The backbone of DNA is...
sugar and phosphate.

The nitrogenous base is what chagnes.
4 nitrogenous bases of DNA
-A,T,C, and G. (A+T and G+C)

4 bases break up into 2 types which are___and___.
The base pairs of DNA are held together by...
hydrogen bonds.
Base pairing rules for DNA
A+T

G+C
Replication =
Duplication
Replication (aka duplication) is the process of...
making a duplicate copy of a DNA strand.

Parental molecule of DNA becomes 2 daughter molecules of DNA.
DNA has a ____ to check the nucleotides; if there is a problem DNA also has a ____.
proofreading enzyme; repair enzyme.
Article on repair enzymes
Helicase is a repair enzyme of DNA that may be linked to breast cancer.
A genotype is...
an organisms genetic makeup.
A phenotype is...
the characteristic we see.

the manifestation of the genetic info; it's what it becomes.
Basic rule (dogma) of genetics is...
genes to proteins.

The proteins produced by the genetic info causes the cell to respond like it does.  It is expressed by what proteins are produced.  Functionally the proteins give us the phenotypes we see.
A gene is a...
hereditary unit of info; it is part of the DNA molecule.

Genes specify how to build proteins (polypeptides).  Those proteins allow the cells to function as they do.
2 main stages of expressing info in DNA
Transcription--genetic info is transcribed from DNA to RNA; occurs in the nucleus.

Translation--occurs in the cytoplasm.
3 stages of transcription
Initiation--RNA is introduced.

Elongation--RNA grows.

Termination--RNA breaks off.

(DNA helix unzips and RNA nucleotides line up along a strand of DNA, following the base pairing rules (A+U, C+G); RNA does not have T.)
Transcription occurs...
in the nucleus, ultimately producing RNA that is used to make mRNA (proteins).

The mRNA (messenger RNA) carries the genetic message from the DNA out of the nucleus.
Translation occus...
in the cytoplasm.

During translation we translate info to produce a polypeptide (make a functional polypeptide).
A codon is...
a set of 3 nucleotides that codes for an amino acid.

Every condon (set of 3 nucleotides) specifies another amino acid.

The order of the amino acids (monomers) determines which proteins are being produced.

So, the codons specify the sequence of amino acids. 
The presence of polypeptides at the cellular level...
allows you to become you; genes to proteins.

DNA-->RNA-->Protein
2 things that cause mutations in DNA
An error in DNA base or a mutagen.

(mutants have a changed nucleotide)
A mutagen is...
something capable of causing genetic change. (ex. radiation, certain chemicals, etc...)

Mutagens are not inherited; its like if you are exposed to a chemical that affects you on a cellular level.
Hemoglobin is...
the oxygen carrying molecule in blood.
Any genetic situation refers to...
something you got at birth and will have for your entire life.
A gene is altered with varying (minor-fatal) effects by...
substituting, inserting, or deleting nucleotides.
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