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(roots and shoots), CO 2and light found above ground, water and minerals found below
Distinct aerial and subterranean organs
coating that prevents water loss
Cuticle
microscopic pores for the exchange of atmospheric gasses
Stomata :
polymer resistant to environmental damage
Sporopollenin
specialized nonreproductivecells that form organs whose sole purpose is to protect developing gametes
Gametangia
mosses, liverworts, hornworts
Bryophyta( nonvascular Plants)
Lycophyta: club mosses, ground pines
Sphenopyta:horsetailsPterophyta: ferns
Seedless vascular plants: roots and shoots
conducting tissue made up of tubular chains of dead cells used for water and mineral transport
Xylem:
tissue made up of tubular chains of food-conducting live cells used to distribute sugars, amino acids and other organic nutrients
Phloem
hard macromolecule embedded in cell walls that functions as mechanical support, found in xylem cells, wood
Lignin:
plant produces single spore type; bisexual gametophyte
Homosporus
plant produces 2 spore types; unisexual gametophyte
Heterosporus :
a multicellularresistant structure consisting of a sporophyteembryo and food supply with a protective coat
Seed
the reproductive structure of an angiosperm
Flower
Fruit
a mature ovary
  • Homologous chloroplasts: only green algae match plants in having chlorophyll b and beta-carotene as accessory pigments; thylakoid membranes stacked as grana
  • Biochemical similarity: Cellulose in cell walls of most green algae; enzyme composition of peroxisomes
  • Mitosis and cytokinesis: nuclear envelope dispersal, formation of cell plate.
  • Similarity in sperm ultrastructure
  • Genetic relationship: DNA and RNA
Plant-Green algae (charophyte) homology
Terrestrial adaptations
1)       Distinct aerial and subterranean organs (roots and shoots), CO2 and light found above ground, water and minerals found below 2)       Cuticle: waxy coating that prevents water loss 3)       Stomata: microscopic pores for the exchange of atmospheric gasses 4)       Sporopollenin: polymer resistant to environmental damage. 5)       Gametangia: specialized nonreproductive cells that form organs whose sole purpose is to protect developing gametes
Xylem: conducting tissue made up of tubular chains of dead cells used for water and mineral transport Phloem: tissue made up of tubular chains of food-conducting live cells used to distribute sugars, amino acids and other organic nutrients Lignin: hard macromolecule embedded in cell walls that functions as mechanical support, found in xylem cells, wood Link to aquatic past: flagellated sperm
Seedless vascular plants (ferns and relatives)
Seed plant adaptations
1)       reduction of the gametophyte (develops within sporophyte sporangium) 2)       advent of the seed 3)       evolution of pollen
Angiosperms
flowering seed plants
: the reproductive structure of an angiosperm. A compressed shoot with four whorls of modified leaves: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels
Flower:
: non-flowering seed plants
Gymnosperms
 produces spores (hence the name), by meiosis. These meiospores develop into a gametophyte. Both the spores and the resulting gametophyte are haploid, meaning they only have one set ofhomologous chromosomes. The mature gametophyte produces male or female gametes (or both) by mitosisThe fusion of male and female gametes produces a diploid zygote which develops into a new sporophyte. This cycle is known as alternation of generations or alternation of phases.
 sporophyte
Embryophyte condition: gametes develop within gametangia (atheridium-male gametangium; archegonium-female gametangium); fertilization and zygotic development within female gametangia. Sporopollenin-protected spores Sporangium: where meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop Link to aquatic past: flagellated sperm, no vascular tissue
Bryophyta (mosses)
Seed plant adaptations
1)       reduction of the gametophyte (develops within sporophyte sporangium) 2)       advent of the seed 3)       evolution of pollen
extension of individual epidermal cells on the root surface, increase surface area  
Root hairs:
point at which leaves attach stem segments between nodes
Node
Axillary bud
Axillary bud
: in the angle formed by leaf and stem; has the potential to form a branch shoot
: main photosynthetic organs of most plants
Leave
joins leaf to shoot
Petiole
Plant tissue system
Plant tissue system
Dermal
: single layer of closely packed cells ; “skin”, source of cuticle: waxy coating that protects and prevents water loss
xylem and phloem, “veins”, transport and support
Vascular
: bulk of plant; photosynthesis, storage, support, metabolic activity  
Ground
perpetual embryonic tissue that generates cells for new organs throughout the lifetime of the plant
Meristems
the continuation of growth throughout the life of the plant
Indeterminate growth
Apical meristems
supply cells for the plant to grow in length, primary growth
cylinders of cells for the progressive thickening of roots and shoots so plant can grow in width, secondary growth, woody plants.
Lateral meristems
protects root apical and primary meristems, secretes slime
Root cap
ground tissue, food storage, mineral transport, between epidermis and stele
Cortex
single layer of cells through which water and minerals pass, root hairs
Epidermis
: arise from outermost layer of stele ; cells become meristematic and push through cortex; vascular tissue is continuous   
Lateral roots
where photosynthesis takes place; subdivided by leaf veins bringing xylem and phloem in close contact  with photosynthetic tissue for sugar transport. 
Mesophyll:
cylinder of meristematic tissue first formed in the outer cortex, produces cork cells which accumulate exterior to the cork cambium
Cork cambium
fungus whose hyphae absorb water and minerals and transfer them to plant roots, greatly extend the surface area and reach of plants water harvesting system
Mycorrhizae
when transpiration is low root cells pump mineral ions into the xylem (stele). The accumulation of minerals in the stele lowers the water potential. Water flows in form the cortex, generating a positive pressure that forces fluid up the xylem = root pressure, not the major mechanism of water transport
Water is pushed
the air outside the leaf is drier (lower water conc.) causing the diffusion of gaseous water from leaf cells to stomata to air. Transpiration: loss of water vapor from leaves. Water that leaves the stomata is replaced by water that is pulled out of the xylem. This transpirational pull is transmitted all the way from leaves to root tips, Hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together
  Water is pulled
Long distance transport of water from roots to leaves occurs by bulk flow: the movement of a fluid driven by pressure difference at opposite ends of a conduit. The pressure difference is generated at the leaf end by transpiration which lowers pressure upstream. _____ moves the whole solution, water and minerals. The plant expend none of its own energy to lift water. The ascent of xylem sap is solar powered.
bulk flow
the amount of water lost per gram of CO2 assimilated into organic material by photosynthesis.  
Transpiration to photosynthesis ratio
Water loss adaptations:
 name 6
  • Small thick leaves reduce surface area/leaf volume.
  • Thick cuticle
  • Stomata on lower surface of plants
  • Stomata located in depressions for shelter form dry wind
  • Drought deciduous leaves
  • Water storage in fleshy stems (Cacti)
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