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QUESTION NO: 1 What is the essential difference between an ‘Ethical Hacker’ and a ‘Cracker’? A. The ethical hacker does not use the same techniques or skills as a cracker. B. The ethical hacker does it strictly for financial motives unlike a cracker. C. The ethical hacker has authorization from the owner of the target. D. The ethical hacker is just a cracker who is getting paid.
Answer: C Explanation: The ethical hacker uses the same techniques and skills as a cracker and the motive is to find the security breaches before a cracker does. There is nothing that says that a cracker does not get paid for the work he does, a ethical hacker has the owners authorization and will get paid even if he does not succeed to penetrate the target.
QUESTION NO: 2 What does the term “Ethical Hacking” mean? A. Someone who is hacking for ethical reasons. B. Someone who is using his/her skills for ethical reasons. C. Someone who is using his/her skills for defensive purposes. D. Someone who is using his/her skills for offensive purposes.
Answer: C Explanation: Ethical hacking is only about defending your self or your employer against malicious persons by using the same techniques and skills.
QUESTION NO: 3 Who is an Ethical Hacker? A. A person who hacks for ethical reasons B. A person who hacks for an ethical cause C. A person who hacks for defensive purposes D. A person who hacks for offensive purposes
Answer: C Explanation: The Ethical hacker is a security professional who applies his hacking skills for defensive purposes.
QUESTION NO: 4 What is \"Hacktivism\"? A. Hacking for a cause B. Hacking ruthlessly C. An association which groups activists D. None of the above
Answer: A Explanation: The term was coined by author/critic Jason Logan King Sack in an article about media artist Shu Lea Cheang. Acts of hacktivism are carried out in the belief that proper use of code will have leveraged effects similar to regular activism or civil disobedience.
QUESTION NO: 5 Where should a security tester be looking for information that could be used by an attacker against an organization? (Select all that apply) A. CHAT rooms B. WHOIS database C. News groups D. Web sites E. Search engines F. Organization’s own web site
Answer: A,B,C,D,E,F Explanation: A Security tester should search for information everywhere that he/she can access. You never know where you find that small piece of information that could penetrate a strong defense.
QUESTION NO: 6 What are the two basic types of attacks?(Choose two. A. DoS B. Passive C. Sniffing D. Active E. Cracking
Answer: B,D Explanation: Passive and active attacks are the two basic types of attacks.
QUESTION NO: 7 The United Kingdom (UK) he passed a law that makes hacking into an unauthorized network a felony. The law states: Section1 of the Act refers to unauthorized access to computer material. This states that a person commits an offence if he causes a computer to perform any function with intent to secure unauthorized access to any program or data held in any computer. For a successful conviction under this part of the Act, the prosecution must prove that the access secured is unauthorized and that the suspect knew that this was the case. This section is designed to deal with common-or-graden hacking. Section 2 of the deals with unauthorized access with intent to commit or facilitate the commission of further offences. An offence is committed under Section 2 if a Section 1 offence has been committed and there is the intention of committing or facilitating a further offense (any offence which attacks a custodial sentence of more than five years, not necessarily one covered but the Act). Even if it is not possible to prove the intent to commit the further offence, the Section 1 offence is still committed. Section 3 Offences cover unauthorized modification of computer material, which generally means the creation and distribution of viruses. For conviction to succeed there must have been the intent to cause the modifications and knowledge that the modification had not been authorized What is the law called? A. Computer Misuse Act 1990 B. Computer incident Act 2000 C. Cyber Crime Law Act 2003 D. Cyber Space Crime Act 1995
Answer: A Explanation: Computer Misuse Act (1990) creates three criminal offences:
QUESTION NO: 8 Which of the following best describes Vulnerability? A. The loss potential of a threat B. An action or event that might prejudice security C. An agent that could take advantage of a weakness D. A weakness or error that can lead to compromise
Answer: D Explanation: A vulnerability is a flaw or weakness in system security procedures, design or implementation that could be exercised (accidentally triggered or intentionally exploited) and result in a harm to an IT system or activity.
QUESTION NO: 9 Steven works as a security consultant and frequently performs penetration tests for Fortune 500 companies. Steven runs external and internal tests and then creates reports to show the companies where their weak areas are. Steven always signs a non-disclosure agreement before performing his tests. What would Steven be considered? A. Whitehat Hacker B. BlackHat Hacker C. Grayhat Hacker D. Bluehat Hacker
Answer: A Explanation: A white hat hacker, also rendered as ethical hacker, is, in the realm of information technology, a person who is ethically opposed to the abuse of computer systems. Realization that the Internet now represents human voices from around the world has made the defense of its integrity an important pastime for many. A white hat generally focuses on securing IT systems, whereas a black hat (the opposite) would like to break into them.
QUESTION NO: 10 Which of the following act in the united states specifically criminalizes the transmission of unsolicited commercial e-mail(SPAM) without an existing business relationship. A. 2004 CANSPAM Act B. 2003 SPAM Preventing Act C. 2005 US-SPAM 1030 Act D. 1990 Computer Misuse Act
Answer: A Explanation: The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 (Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act) establishes requirements for those who send commercial email, spells out penalties for spammers and companies whose products are advertised in spam if they violate the law, and gives consumers the right to ask emailers to stop spamming them. The law, which became effective January 1, 2004, covers email whose primary purpose is advertising or promoting a commercial product or service, including content on a Web site. A \"transactional or relationship message\" – email that facilitates an agreed-upon transaction or updates a customer in an existing business relationship – may not contain false or misleading routing information, but otherwise is exempt from most provisions of the CAN-SPAM Act.
QUESTION NO: 11 ABC.com is legally liable for the content of email that is sent from its systems, regardless of whether the message was sent for private or business-related purpose. This could lead to prosecution for the sender and for the company’s directors if, for example, outgoing email was found to contain material that was pornographic, racist or likely to incite someone to commit an act of terrorism. You can always defend yourself by “ignorance of the law” clause. A. True B. False
Answer: B Explanation: Ignorantia juris non excusat or Ignorantia legis neminem excusat (Latin for \"ignorance of the law does not excuse\" or \"ignorance of the law excuses no one\") is a public policy holding that a person who is unaware of a law may not escape liability for violating that law merely because he or she was unaware of its content; that is, persons have presumed knowledge of the law. Presumed knowledge of the law is the principle in jurisprudence that one is bound by a law even if one does not know of it. It has also been defined as the \"prohibition of ignorance of the law\". Topic 2, Footprinting
QUESTION NO: 12 You are footprinting Acme.com to gather competitive intelligence. You visit the acme.com websire for contact information and telephone number numbers but do not find it listed there. You know that they had the entire staff directory listed on their website 12 months ago but now it is not there. How would it be possible for you to retrieve information from the website that is outdated? A. Visit google search engine and view the cached copy. B. Visit Archive.org site to retrieve the Internet archive of the acme website. C. Crawl the entire website and store them into your computer. D. Visit the company’s partners and customers website for this information.
Answer: B Explanation: The Internet Archive (IA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to maintaining an archive of Web and multimedia resources. Located at the Presidio in San Francisco, California, this archive includes \"snapshots of the World Wide Web\" (archived copies of pages, taken at various points in time), software, movies, books, and audio recordings (including recordings of live concerts from bands that allow it). This site is found at www.archive.org.
QUESTION NO: 13 User which Federal Statutes does FBI investigate for computer crimes involving e-mail scams and mail fraud? A. 18 U.S.C 1029 Possession of Access Devices B. 18 U.S.C 1030 Fraud and related activity in connection with computers C. 18 U.S.C 1343 Fraud by wire, radio or television D. 18 U.S.C 1361 Injury to Government Property E. 18 U.S.C 1362 Government communication systems F. 18 U.S.C 1831 Economic Espionage Act G. 18 U.S.C 1832 Trade Secrets Act
Answer: B Explanation: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode18/usc_sec_18_00001030----000. html
QUESTION NO: 14 Which of the following activities will NOT be considered as passive footprinting? A. Go through the rubbish to find out any information that might have been discarded. B. Search on financial site such as Yahoo Financial to identify assets. C. Scan the range of IP address found in the target DNS database. D. Perform multiples queries using a search engine.
Answer: C Explanation: Passive footprinting is a method in which the attacker never makes contact with the target systems. Scanning the range of IP addresses found in the target DNS is considered making contact to the systems behind the IP addresses that is targeted by the scan.
QUESTION NO: 15 Which one of the following is defined as the process of distributing incorrect Internet Protocol (IP) addresses/names with the intent of diverting traffic? A. Network aliasing B. Domain Name Server (DNS) poisoning C. Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) D. Port scanning
Answer: B Explanation: This reference is close to the one listed DNS poisoning is the correct answer. This is how DNS DOS attack can occur. If the actual DNS records are unattainable to the attacker for him to alter in this fashion, which they should be, the attacker can insert this data into the cache of there server instead of replacing the actual records, which is referred to as cache poisoning.
QUESTION NO: 16 You are footprinting an organization to gather competitive intelligence. You visit the company’s website for contact information and telephone numbers but do not find it listed there. You know that they had the entire staff directory listed on their website 12 months ago but not it is not there. How would it be possible for you to retrieve information from the website that is outdated? A. Visit google’s search engine and view the cached copy. B. Visit Archive.org web site to retrieve the Internet archive of the company’s website. C. Crawl the entire website and store them into your computer. D. Visit the company’s partners and customers website for this information.
Answer: B Explanation: Explanation: Archive.org mirrors websites and categorizes them by date and month depending on the crawl time. Archive.org dates back to 1996, Google is incorrect because the cache is only as recent as the latest crawl, the cache is over-written on each subsequent crawl. Download the website is incorrect because that\'s the same as what you see online. Visiting customer partners websites is just bogus. The answer is then Firmly, C, archive.org
QUESTION NO: 17 A Company security System Administrator is reviewing the network system log files. He notes the following: -Network log files are at 5 MB at 12:00 noon. -At 14:00 hours, the log files at 3 MB. What should he assume has happened and what should he do about the situation? A. He should contact the attacker’s ISP as soon as possible and have the connection disconnected. B. He should log the event as suspicious activity, continue to investigate, and take further steps according to site security policy. C. He should log the file size, and archive the information, because the router crashed. D. He should run a file system check, because the Syslog server has a self correcting file system problem. E. He should disconnect from the Internet discontinue any further unauthorized use, because an attack has taken place.
Answer: B Explanation: You should never assume a host has been compromised without verification. Typically, disconnecting a server is an extreme measure and should only be done when it is confirmed there is a compromise or the server contains such sensitive data that the loss of service outweighs the risk. Never assume that any administrator or automatic process is making changes to a system. Always investigate the root cause of the change on the system and follow your organizations security policy.
QUESTION NO: 18 To what does “message repudiation” refer to what concept in the realm of email security? A. Message repudiation means a user can validate which mail server or servers a message was passed through. B. Message repudiation means a user can claim damages for a mail message that damaged their reputation. C. Message repudiation means a recipient can be sure that a message was sent from a particular person. D. Message repudiation means a recipient can be sure that a message was sent from a certain host. E. Message repudiation means a sender can claim they did not actually send a particular message.
Answer: E Explanation: A quality that prevents a third party from being able to prove that a communication between two other parties ever took place. This is a desirable quality if you do not want your communications to be traceable. Non-repudiation is the opposite quality—a third party can prove that a communication between two other parties took place. Non-repudiation is desirable if you want to be able to trace your communications and prove that they occurred. Repudiation – Denial of message submission or delivery.
QUESTION NO: 19 How does Traceroute map the route that a packet travels from point A to point B? A. It uses a TCP Timestamp packet that will elicit a time exceed in transit message. B. It uses a protocol that will be rejected at the gateways on its way to its destination. C. It manipulates the value of time to live (TTL) parameter packet to elicit a time exceeded in transit message. D. It manipulated flags within packets to force gateways into generating error messages.
Answer: C Explanation: Traceroute works by increasing the \"time-to-live\" value of each successive batch of packets sent. The first three packets have a time-to-live (TTL) value of one (implying that they make a single hop). The next three packets have a TTL value of 2, and so on. When a packet passes through a host, normally the host decrements the TTL value by one, and forwards the packet to the next host. When a packet with a TTL of one reaches a host, the host discards the packet and sends an ICMP time exceeded (type 11) packet to the sender. The traceroute utility uses these returning packets to produce a list of hosts that the packets have traversed en route to the destination.
QUESTION NO: 20 Snort has been used to capture packets on the network. On studying the packets, the penetration tester finds it to be abnormal. If you were the penetration tester, why would you find this abnormal? (Note: The student is being tested on concept learnt during passive OS fingerprinting, basic TCP/IP connection concepts and the ability to read packet signatures from a sniff dumo.) 05/20-17:06:45.061034 192.160.13.4:31337 -> 172.16.1.101:1 TCP TTL:44 TOS:0x10 ID:242 ***FRP** Seq: 0XA1D95 Ack: 0x53 Win: 0x400 . . . 05/20-17:06:58.685879 192.160.13.4:31337 -> 172.16.1.101:1024 TCP TTL:44 TOS:0x10 ID:242 ***FRP** Seg: 0XA1D95 Ack: 0x53 Win: 0x400 What is odd about this attack? (Choose the most appropriate statement) A. This is not a spoofed packet as the IP stack has increasing numbers for the three flags. B. This is back orifice activity as the scan comes from port 31337. C. The attacker wants to avoid creating a sub-carrier connection that is not normally valid. D. There packets were created by a tool; they were not created by a standard IP stack.
Answer: B Explanation: Port 31337 is normally used by Back Orifice. Note that 31337 is hackers spelling of ‘elite’, meaning ‘elite hackers’.
QUESTION NO: 21 Your company trainee Sandra asks you which are the four existing Regional Internet Registry (RIR\'s)? A. APNIC, PICNIC, ARIN, LACNIC B. RIPE NCC, LACNIC, ARIN, APNIC C. RIPE NCC, NANIC, ARIN, APNIC D. RIPE NCC, ARIN, APNIC, LATNIC
Answer: B Explanation: All other answers include non existing organizations (PICNIC, NANIC, LATNIC). See http://www.arin.net/library/internet_info/ripe.html
QUESTION NO: 22 A very useful resource for passively gathering information about a target company is: A. Host scanning B. Whois search C. Traceroute D. Ping sweep
Answer: B Explanation: A, C & D are \"Active\" scans, the question says: \"Passively\"
QUESTION NO: 23 You receive an email with the following message: Hello Steve, We are having technical difficulty in restoring user database record after the recent blackout. Your account data is corrupted. Please logon to the SuperEmailServices.com and change your password. http://www.supermailservices.com@0xde.0xad.0xbe.0xef/support/logon.htm If you do not reset your password within 7 days, your account will be permanently disabled locking you out from our e-mail services. Sincerely, Technical Support SuperEmailServices From this e-mail you suspect that this message was sent by some hacker since you have been using their e-mail services for the last 2 years and they have never sent out an e-mail such as this. You also observe the URL in the message and confirm your suspicion about 0xde.0xad.0xbde.0xef which looks like hexadecimal numbers. You immediately enter the following at Windows 2000 command prompt: Ping 0xde.0xad.0xbe.0xef You get a response with a valid IP address. What is the obstructed IP address in the e-mail URL? A. 222.173.190.239 B. 233.34.45.64 C. 54.23.56.55 D. 199.223.23.45
Answer: A Explanation: 0x stands for hexadecimal and DE=222, AD=173, BE=190 and EF=239
QUESTION NO: 24 Which of the following tools are used for footprinting?(Choose four. A. Sam Spade B. NSLookup C. Traceroute D. Neotrace E. Cheops
Answer: A,B,C,D Explanation: All of the tools listed are used for footprinting except Cheops.
QUESTION NO: 25 According to the CEH methodology, what is the next step to be performed after footprinting? A. Enumeration B. Scanning C. System Hacking D. Social Engineering E. Expanding Influence
Answer: B Explanation: Once footprinting has been completed, scanning should be attempted next. Scanning should take place on two distinct levels: network and host.
QUESTION NO: 26 NSLookup is a good tool to use to gain additional information about a target network. What does the following command accomplish? nslookup > server > set type =any > ls -d A. Enables DNS spoofing B. Loads bogus entries into the DNS table C. Verifies zone security D. Performs a zone transfer E. Resets the DNS cache
Answer: D Explanation: If DNS has not been properly secured, the command sequence displayed above will perform a zone transfer.
QUESTION NO: 27 While footprinting a network, what port/service should you look for to attempt a zone transfer? A. 53 UDP B. 53 TCP C. 25 UDP D. 25 TCP E. 161 UDP F. 22 TCP G. 60 TCP
Answer: B Explanation: IF TCP port 53 is detected, the opportunity to attempt a zone transfer is there.
QUESTION NO: 28 Your lab partner is trying to find out more information about a competitors web site. The site has a .com extension. She has decided to use some online whois tools and look in one of the regional Internet registrys. Which one would you suggest she looks in first? A. LACNIC B. ARIN C. APNIC D. RIPE E. AfriNIC
Answer: B Explanation: Regional registries maintain records from the areas from which they govern. ARIN is responsible for domains served within North and South America and therefore, would be a good starting point for a .com domain.
QUESTION NO: 29 Network Administrator Patricia is doing an audit of the network. Below are some of her findings concerning DNS. Which of these would be a cause for alarm? Select the best answer. A. There are two external DNS Servers for Internet domains. Both are AD integrated. B. All external DNS is done by an ISP. C. Internal AD Integrated DNS servers are using private DNS names that are D. unregistered. E. Private IP addresses are used on the internal network and are registered with the internal AD integrated DNS server.
Answer: A Explanation: Explanations: A. There are two external DNS Servers for Internet domains. Both are AD integrated. This is the correct answer. Having an AD integrated DNS external server is a serious cause for alarm. There is no need for this and it causes vulnerability on the network. B. All external DNS is done by an ISP. This is not the correct answer. This would not be a cause for alarm. This would actually reduce the company\'s network risk as it is offloaded onto the ISP. C. Internal AD Integrated DNS servers are using private DNS names that are unregistered. This is not the correct answer. This would not be a cause for alarm. This would actually reduce the company\'s network risk. D. Private IP addresses are used on the internal network and are registered with the internal AD integrated DNS server. This is not the correct answer. This would not be a cause for alarm. This would actually reduce the company\'s network risk.
QUESTION NO: 30 The terrorist organizations are increasingly blocking all traffic from North America or from Internet Protocol addresses that point to users who rely on the English Language. Hackers sometimes set a number of criteria for accessing their website. This information is shared among the co-hackers. For example if you are using a machine with the Linux Operating System and the Netscape browser then you will have access to their website in a convert way. When federal investigators using PCs running windows and using Internet Explorer visited the hacker’s shared site, the hacker’s system immediately mounted a distributed denial-of-service attack against the federal system. Companies today are engaging in tracking competitor’s through reverse IP address lookup sites like whois.com, which provide an IP address’s domain. When the competitor visits the companies website they are directed to a products page without discount and prices are marked higher for their product. When normal users visit the website they are directed to a page with full-blown product details along with attractive discounts. This is based on IP- based blocking, where certain addresses are barred from accessing a site. What is this masking technique called? A. Website Cloaking B. Website Filtering C. IP Access Blockade D. Mirrored WebSite
Answer: A Explanation: Website Cloaking travels under a variety of alias including Stealth, Stealth scripts, IP delivery, Food Script, and Phantom page technology. It’s hot- due to its ability to manipulate those elusive top-ranking results from spider search engines.
QUESTION NO: 31 Bill has started to notice some slowness on his network when trying to update his company’s website while trying to access the website from the Internet. Bill asks the help desk manager if he has received any calls about slowness from the end users, but the help desk manager says that he has not. Bill receives a number of calls from customers that can’t access the company website and can’t purchase anything online. Bill logs on to a couple of this routers and notices that the logs shows network traffic is at all time high. He also notices that almost all the traffic is originating from a specific address. Bill decides to use Geotrace to find out where the suspect IP is originates from. The Geotrace utility runs a traceroute and finds that IP is coming from Panama. Bill knows that none of his customers are in Panama so he immediately thinks that his company is under a Denial of Service attack. Now Bill needs to find out more about the originating IP Address. What Internet registry should Bill look in to find the IP Address? A. LACNIC B. ARIN C. RIPELACNIC D. APNIC
Answer: A Explanation: LACNIC is the Latin American and Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry that administers IP addresses, autonomous system numbers, reverse DNS, and other network resources for that region.
QUESTION NO: 32 System Administrators sometimes post questions to newsgroups when they run into technical challenges. As an ethical hacker, you could use the information in newsgroup posting to glean insight into the makeup of a target network. How would you search for these posting using Google search? A. Search in Google using the key strings “the target company” and “newsgroups” B. Search for the target company name at http://groups.google.com C. Use NNTP websites to search for these postings D. Search in Google using the key search strings “the target company” and “forums”
Answer: B Explanation: Using http://groups.google.com is the easiest way to access various newsgroups today. Before http://groups.google.com you had to use special NNTP clients or subscribe to some nntp to web services.
QUESTION NO: 33 Which of the following activities would not be considered passive footprinting? A. Search on financial site such as Yahoo Financial B. Perform multiple queries through a search engine C. Scan the range of IP address found in their DNS database D. Go through the rubbish to find out any information that might have been discarded
Answer: C Explanation: Passive footprinting is a method in which the attacker never makes contact with the target. Scanning the targets IP addresses can be logged at the target and therefore contact has been made.
QUESTION NO: 34 You are footprinting the www.xsecurity.com domain using the Google Search Engine. You would like to determine what sites link to www.xsecurity .com at the first level of revelance. Which of the following operator in Google search will you use to achieve this? A. Link: www.xsecurity.com B. serch?l:www.xsecurity.com C. level1.www.security.com D. pagerank:www.xsecurity.com
Answer: A Explanation: The query link:] will list webpages that have links to the specified webpage. For instance, link:www.google.com] will list webpages that have links pointing to the Google homepage. Note there can be no space between the \"link:\" and the web page url. Topic 3, Scanning
QUESTION NO: 35 Doug is conducting a port scan of a target network. He knows that his client target network has a web server and that there is a mail server also which is up and running. Doug has been sweeping the network but has not been able to elicit any response from the remote target. Which of the following could be the most likely cause behind this lack of response? Select 4. A. UDP is filtered by a gateway B. The packet TTL value is too low and cannot reach the target C. The host might be down D. The destination network might be down E. The TCP windows size does not match F. ICMP is filtered by a gateway
Answer: A,B,C,F Explanation: If the destination host or the destination network is down there is no way to get an answer and if TTL (Time To Live) is set too low the UDP packets will “die” before reaching the host because of too many hops between the scanning computer and the target. The TCP receive window size is the amount of received data (in bytes) that can be buffered during a connection. The sending host can send only that amount of data before it must wait for an acknowledgment and window update from the receiving host and ICMP is mainly used for echo requests and not in port scans.
QUESTION NO: 36 Exhibit Joe Hacker runs the hping2 hacking tool to predict the target host’s sequence numbers in one of the hacking session. What does the first and second column mean? Select two. A. The first column reports the sequence number B. The second column reports the difference between the current and last sequence number C. The second column reports the next sequence number D. The first column reports the difference between current and last sequence number
Answer: A,B Explanation:
QUESTION NO: 37 While performing a ping sweep of a subnet you receive an ICMP reply of Code 3/Type 13 for all the pings sent out. What is the most likely cause behind this response? A. The firewall is dropping the packets. B. An in-line IDS is dropping the packets. C. A router is blocking ICMP. D. The host does not respond to ICMP packets.
Answer: C Explanation: Type 3 message = Destination Unreachable RFC792], Code 13 (cause) = Communication Administratively Prohibited RFC1812]
QUESTION NO: 38 The following excerpt is taken from a honeyput log. The log captures activities across three days. There are several intrusion attempts; however, a few are successful. Study the log given below and answer the following question: (Note: The objective of this questions is to test whether the student has learnt about passive OS fingerprinting (which should tell them the OS from log captures): can they tell a SQL injection attack signature; can they infer if a user ID has been created by an attacker and whether they can read plain source – destination entries from log entries.) What can you infer from the above log? A. The system is a windows system which is being scanned unsuccessfully. B. The system is a web application server compromised through SQL injection. C. The system has been compromised and backdoored by the attacker. D. The actual IP of the successful attacker is 24.9.255.53.
Answer: A Explanation:
QUESTION NO: 39 Bob has been hired to perform a penetration test on ABC.com. He begins by looking at IP address ranges owned by the company and details of domain name registration. He then goes to News Groups and financial web sites to see if they are leaking any sensitive information of have any technical details online. Within the context of penetration testing methodology, what phase is Bob involved with? A. Passive information gathering B. Active information gathering C. Attack phase D. Vulnerability Mapping
Answer: A Explanation: He is gathering information and as long as he doesn’t make contact with any of the targets systems he is considered gathering this information in a passive mode.
QUESTION NO: 40 Which of the following would be the best reason for sending a single SMTP message to an address that does not exist within the target company? A. To create a denial of service attack. B. To verify information about the mail administrator and his address. C. To gather information about internal hosts used in email treatment. D. To gather information about procedures that are in place to deal with such messages.
Answer: C Explanation: The replay from the email server that states that there is no such recipient will also give you some information about the name of the email server, versions used and so on.
QUESTION NO: 41 You are conducting a port scan on a subnet that has ICMP blocked. You have discovered 23 live systems and after scanning each of them you notice that they all show port 21 in closed state. What should be the next logical step that should be performed? A. Connect to open ports to discover applications. B. Perform a ping sweep to identify any additional systems that might be up. C. Perform a SYN scan on port 21 to identify any additional systems that might be up. D. Rescan every computer to verify the results.
Answer: C Explanation: As ICMP is blocked you’ll have trouble determining which computers are up and running by using a ping sweep. As all the 23 computers that you had discovered earlier had port 21 closed, probably any additional, previously unknown, systems will also have port 21 closed. By running a SYN scan on port 21 over the target network you might get replies from additional systems.
QUESTION NO: 42 Ann would like to perform a reliable scan against a remote target. She is not concerned about being stealth at this point. Which of the following type of scans would be the most accurate and reliable option? A. A half-scan B. A UDP scan C. A TCP Connect scan D. A FIN scan
Answer: C Explanation: A TCP Connect scan, named after the Unix connect() system call is the most accurate scanning method. If a port is open the operating system completes the TCP three-way handshake, and the port scanner immediately closes the connection. Otherwise an error code is returned. Example of a three-way handshake followed by a reset: Source Destination Summary
QUESTION NO: 43 What type of port scan is shown below? A. Idle Scan B. Windows Scan C. XMAS Scan D. SYN Stealth Scan
Answer: C Explanation: An Xmas port scan is variant of TCP port scan. This type of scan tries to obtain information about the state of a target port by sending a packet which has multiple TCP flags set to 1 - \"lit as an Xmas tree\". The flags set for Xmas scan are FIN, URG and PSH. The purpose is to confuse and bypass simple firewalls. Some stateless firewalls only check against security policy those packets which have the SYN flag set (that is, packets that initiate connection according to the standards). Since Xmas scan packets are different, they can pass through these simple systems and reach the target host.
QUESTION NO: 44 War dialing is a very old attack and depicted in movies that were made years ago. Why would a modem security tester consider using such an old technique? A. It is cool, and if it works in the movies it must work in real life. B. It allows circumvention of protection mechanisms by being on the internal network. C. It allows circumvention of the company PBX. D. A good security tester would not use such a derelict technique.
Answer: B Explanation: If you are lucky and find a modem that answers and is connected to the target network, it usually is less protected (as only employees are supposed to know of its existence) and once connected you don’t need to take evasive actions towards any firewalls or IDS.
QUESTION NO: 45 An attacker is attempting to telnet into a corporation’s system in the DMZ. The attacker doesn’t want to get caught and is spoofing his IP address. After numerous tries he remains unsuccessful in connecting to the system. The attacker rechecks that the target system is actually listening on Port 23 and he verifies it with both nmap and hping2. He is still unable to connect to the target system. What is the most probable reason? A. The firewall is blocking port 23 to that system. B. He cannot spoof his IP and successfully use TCP. C. He needs to use an automated tool to telnet in. D. He is attacking an operating system that does not reply to telnet even when open.
Answer: B Explanation: Spoofing your IP will only work if you don’t need to get an answer from the target system. In this case the answer (login prompt) from the telnet session will be sent to the “real” location of the IP address that you are showing as the connection initiator.
QUESTION NO: 46 You are scanning into the target network for the first time. You find very few conventional ports open. When you attempt to perform traditional service identification by connecting to the open ports, it yields either unreliable or no results. You are unsure of which protocols are being used. You need to discover as many different protocols as possible. Which kind of scan would you use to achieve this? (Choose the best answer) A. Nessus scan with TCP based pings. B. Nmap scan with the –sP (Ping scan) switch. C. Netcat scan with the –u –e switches. D. Nmap with the –sO (Raw IP packets) switch.
Answer: D Explanation: Running Nmap with the –sO switch will do a IP Protocol Scan. The IP protocol scan is a bit different than the other nmap scans. The IP protocol scan is searching for additional IP protocols in use by the remote station, such as ICMP, TCP, and UDP. If a router is scanned, additional IP protocols such as EGP or IGP may be identified.
QUESTION NO: 47 What are twp types of ICMP code used when using the ping command? A. It uses types 0 and 8. B. It uses types 13 and 14. C. It uses types 15 and 17. D. The ping command does not use ICMP but uses UDP.
Answer: A Explanation: ICMP Type 0 = Echo Reply, ICMP Type 8 = Echo
QUESTION NO: 48 You are having problems while retrieving results after performing port scanning during internal testing. You verify that there are no security devices between you and the target system. When both stealth and connect scanning do not work, you decide to perform a NULL scan with NMAP. The first few systems scanned shows all ports open. Which one of the following statements is probably true? A. The systems have all ports open. B. The systems are running a host based IDS. C. The systems are web servers. D. The systems are running Windows.
Answer: D Explanation: The null scan turns off all flags, creating a lack of TCP flags that should never occur in the real world. If the port is closed, a RST frame should be returned and a null scan to an open port results in no response. Unfortunately Microsoft (like usual) decided to completely ignore the standard and do things their own way. Thus this scan type will not work against systems running Windows as they choose not to response at all. This is a good way to distinguish that the system being scanned is running Microsoft Windows.
QUESTION NO: 49 John has scanned the web server with NMAP. However, he could not gather enough information to help him identify the operating system running on the remote host accurately. What would you suggest to John to help identify the OS that is being used on the remote web server? A. Connect to the web server with a browser and look at the web page. B. Connect to the web server with an FTP client. C. Telnet to port 8080 on the web server and look at the default page code. D. Telnet to an open port and grab the banner.
Answer: D Explanation: Most people don’t care about changing the banners presented by applications listening to open ports and therefore you should get fairly accurate information when grabbing banners from open ports with, for example, a telnet application.
QUESTION NO: 50 An Nmap scan shows the following open ports, and nmap also reports that the OS guessing results to match too many signatures hence it cannot reliably be identified: 21 ftp 23 telnet 80 http 443 https What does this suggest ? A. This is a Windows Domain Controller B. The host is not firewalled C. The host is not a Linux or Solaris system D. The host is not properly patched
Answer: D Explanation: Explanation: If the answer was A nmap would guess it, it holds the MS signature database, the host not being firewalled makes no difference. The host is not linux or solaris, well it very well could be. The host is not properly patched? That is the closest; nmaps OS detection architecture is based solely off the TCP ISN issued by the operating systems TCP/IP stack, if the stack is modified to show output from randomized ISN\'s or if your using a program to change the ISN then OS detection will fail. If the TCP/IP IP ID\'s are modified then os detection could also fail, because the machine would most likely come back as being down.
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