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Reliability
The operation of hardware
Reliability
Example: Medical records that become dissociated from the patient they refer to are considered ___.
Reliability
The __ of machines
Integrity
Refers to the correspondence of data with itself at its creation.
Integrity
Data lacks __ when it has been changed accidentally or tampered with.
Integrity
Example: A hacker might change drivers\' license data
Security
Refers to the protection of hardware
Security
Measures include restricted access to machines and networks and encryption of information
Security
The degree of __ of information systems determines society\'s confidence in the information contained in the systems.
Privacy
The ability of individuals and groups to determine for themselves when
Anonymity
The extreme form of privacy; Might be called for in some use but is dangerous in others
Privacy and anonymity
Example: discussion of a delicate subject might require __
Authenticity
Refers to the establishment of the user\'s identity beyond reasonable doubt.
Authentication
__ of the user is crucial in many situations
Authentication
A simple example of __ is user login onto a network.
Authentication
A complex example of __ is the use of encrypted digital signatures in a business transaction.
Intellectual property
Includes ideas
Intellectual property
__ is legally protected by copyrights
Equality of access
Definition: Information technology has the potential to offer universal access to information
Equality of access
Example: White telelearning brings previously unavailable opportunities to everyone\'s doorstep
Control
As an instrument of __
Control
Example: An automatic aircraft landing system provides an example of increased reliability resulting from IT __.
Control
Example: Employer surveillance of employees represents a new kind of __ imposed on people.
Globalization
The diminishing importance of geographical
Globalization
Example: Any dramatic event anywhere in the world can be broadcast almost instantly by television or on the internet. However
Cultural diversity
The new global village provides a worldwide cultural awareness
Policies
Enforceable measures intended to promote appropriate use
Policies
Consist of rules governing access to
Policies
Example: A national policy on information technology security would need to define what constitutes unlawful access to networks and how to treat transgression.
Policies
Example: __ affect the exchange of information by making it subject to copyright laws.
Policies
__ can promote or restrict access
Standards
Social or technical and conventions that enable compatibility and therefore facilitate communication or interoperability between different IT systems and their components.
Standards
Govern the design and use of hardware
Standards
Example: communication protocols used on the internet
People and machines
The interaction of humans with information technology hardware raises all the issues encountered in the social and ethical issues section
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