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Paul Ehrlich
Father of Chemotherapy 1st to work w/ antibiotics Sulfar Drug aka magic bullet (1920) Killed bacteria or fungi
Alexander Fleming
Discovered Penicillin (1928) Usable in (1940); Florey & Chain
Antimicrobial agent
drug that is toxic to microbes but no humans; selective toxicity
Spectrum of Activity
Range of organisms the drug affects -Broad=variety vs. Narrow =few
antimicrobial agent usually produce naturally by a bacterium or fungus
work by exploiting differences between mammalian and fungal cells to kill the fungal organism without dangerous effects on the host; diffcult because both human and fungi are eukaryotes
used for treating viral infections; do not destroy their target pathogen; instead they inhibit their development
Purpose of selective toxicity
create an agent to harm microorganisms but not humans
Modes of Action
Inhibit of Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibition of Protein Synthesis Injury of Plasma Membrane Inhibition of Nucleic Acid Inhibition of Essential Metabolites
Inhibiton of Cell Wall Synthesis (Agents)
Pencillin Vancomycin
Inhibitio of Protein Sythesis (Agents)
Tetracycline Streptomycin Cheloramphenicol
Injury of Plasma Membrane (Agents)
Amphotericin B
Inhibition of Nucleic Acid (Agents)
Ciprofloxacin (Antibacterial) Base Analog (Antiviral) -AZT, Ribavirin
Inhibition of Essential Metabolites (Agents)
-Sulfonamides (Sulfa drugs) -Inhibitors of folic acid production
Penicillin (Inhibiton of Cell Wall Synthesis)
beta lactam ring of penicillin interferes w/ growing cell wall all penicillins have a beta lactam ring
Semi-synthetic pencillins
Amphicillin (broad)= gram - Oxacillin (narrow) = gram +
Natural penicillins
Penicillin G = injections Penicillin V = orally
Vancomycin (Inhibition of Cell Wall Synthesis)
narrow spectrum; use to treat MRSA; bacteria are developing resistance to it
Tetracycline (Inhibiton of Protein Synthesis)
interferes with tRNA attachment to mRNA ribosome complex; if tRNA can't attach can't put out amino acid, no amino acid = no protein
Streptomycin (Inhibition of Protein Synthesis)
interferes w/ reading do codon; changes shape of 30S portion causing mRNA to read incorrectly
Chloramphenicol (Inhibition of Protein Synthesis)
third most common drug; interferes with last amino acid; inhibits formation of peptide bond
Amphotericin B (Injury of Plasma Membrane)
antifungal agent; combines with sterols(chemical) creating a change in permeability (materials begin to leak out and other material from environment leak in); creates toxicity risk (e.g. ergosterol = similar shape to chlosterol causing human risk)
Ciprofloxacin (Inhibition of Nucleic Acid)
antibacterial agent; replaces AGCT parts of cell = replication stops
Base Analog -AZT, Ribavirin (Inhibition of Nucleic Acid)
antivral agent; replaces AGCT parts of cell = replication stops (inhibiting DNA synthesis)
Sulfonamides (Sulfa drug) (Inhibition of Essential Metabolites)
competitive inhibiton; stops metabolic pathway that cell uses to make folic acid (e.g. folic acid is used by the cell to make DNA protein = no replication)
Antibioitic Resistance (Reasons & Examples)
Resistance do to genetics (e.g. some bacteria create ability to change antibiotics into a food source = resistance) Overuse/Misuse of antibiotics (anitbiotics given to healthy livestock = misuse; failure to take antibiotic meds. via full cycle [noncompliance])
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