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Categorize diseases according to frequency of occurence
-Incidence -Prevalence -Sporadic disease -Endemic disease -Epidemic disease -Pandemic disease -Herd Immunity
fraction of a population that contracts that contracts a disease during a specific time
Fraction of a population having a specific disease at a given time.
disease that occurs occasionally in a population
sporadic disease
disease constantly present in a population
Endemic disease
disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time.
Epidemic disease
worldwide epidemic
Pandemic disease
immunity in most of a population.
Herd Immunity
Categorize diseases according to severity (severity or duration of a disease)
-Acute -Chronic disease -subacute disease -latent disease
symptoms develop rapidly
acute diseases
disease develops slowly
chronic disease
symptoms between acute and chronic
subacute disease
disease with a period of no symptoms when the patient is inactive.
Latent disease
Put the stages of a disease in order.
Incubation period,Prodomal period, period of illness, period of decline, period of convalescence
time between infection and appearance of first symptoms, highly variable, hours to years, pathogen may be multiplying, adapting to new host, migrating through host body
Incubation period
appearance of nonspecific symptoms (often fever, headache, malaise
Prodomal period
typical disease period:appearance of specific symptoms, may be specific enough to allow symptomatic diagnosis
period of illness and period of decline
period of recovery from illness; some pathogens remain alive in body;possibility of relapse (return of symptoms)
are continual sources of infection
reservoirs of infection
what are the reservoirs of infection?
Human, Animal, and nonliving
reservoir of infection which carriers may have inapparent infections or latent diseases. ex. AIDS and gonorrhea
reservoir of infection, some zoonoses may be transmitted to humans. e.g. rabies, Lyme disease
reservoir of infection: soil e.g. botulism, tetanus
Explain three methods of disease transmission and provide examples of each.
1. Vehicle 2. Biological 3. Mechanical
transmission by an inanimate reservoir (food, water)e.g. cholera
internalize;pathogen-reproduces in vector, feed upon human blood. e.g. plague, malaria
Biological vector transmission
on insect bodies; arthropod carries pathogen on feet. e.g. E.coli, diarrhea
Mechanical vector transmission
Define Nosocomial infections and explain their importance., and how nosocomial infections can be prevented.
Hospital-acquired infection; are acquired as a result of a hospital stay; 5-15% of all hospital patients acquire this.
List several methods of disease transmission in hospitals (common causes of nosocomial disease)
patient are succeptible to these infection because their immune system defenses are weakened; resistant microbes; invasive procedures
How can nosocomial infections be prevented?
1.Aseptic Techniques. e.g. Washing hands before and after interacting with patients 2.Contaminated material must be put away properly 3.Invasive procedure should only be use when necessary.
Importance of nosocomial infection
Relative Frequency of Nosocomial Disease
List 5 probable reasons for Emerging infectious diseases
1.Genetic Recombination 2.Inappropriate use of antibiotics and pesticides 3.changes in weather patterns 4.Modern Transportation 5.Public Health Failure
Name one example for Genetic Recombination
E.coli 0157
Name one example for inappropriate use of antibiotics and pesticides
Antibiotic resistant strains
Name one example for Modern Transportation
West Nile Virus
Name one example for changes in weather patterns
Name one example for Public Health Failure
the image from the objective lens is magnified again by the ocular lens.
Compound microscope
objective lens x ocular lens
total magnification
the ability of the lenses to distinguish two points
the light-bending ability of a medium. The light may bend in air so much that it misses the small high magnification lens.
refractive index
It is used to keep light from bending.
Immersion Oil
uses electrons instead of light; the shorter wavelength of electrons gives greater resolution.
Electron Microscope
List the steps in preparing a Gram Stain
Stains consist of a positive and negative ion. In a basic dye, the chromophore is a cation. In an acidic dye, the chromophore is an anion.
Staining the background instead of the cell is called
negative staining.
classifies bacteria into gram-positive or gram-negative
Gram stain
bacteria tend to be killed by penicillin and detergents
bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics
descrive the appearance of gram-positive
Through out the procedure, if put bacteria from crystal violet,iodine, alcohol-acetone and safranin, the gram positive will stay purple.
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