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Describe structural isomers.
compounds with the same molecular formula but with different arrangements of atoms
Describe the features of a homologous series.
Include the same general formula,

neighbouring members differing by CH2,

similar chemical properties and gradation in physical properties.    
Predict and explain the trends in boiling points of members of a homologous series.
As the number of CH2 groups increases, the mass and intermolecular forces increase, and the boiling point increases. 
Name the isomers of the non-cyclic alkanes up to C6.

Example:
  • CH3CH(CH3)CH(CH3)CH2CH2CH3
   
What is the structural formula for 2,3-dimethylhexane?
What is an alkane?
an organic molecule composed of only covalent C-C and C-H bonds
What is an alkene?
an organic molecule with at least one C=C covalent bond.
What is an alkyne?
an organic molecule with at least one C-C triple covalent bond
What are the products of complete combustion?
CO2 and H2O
What are the products of incomplete combustion?
H2O and some combination of C, CO, and CO2 but not CO2 only.
What is a primary Halogenoalkane?
an organic compound with a halogen bonded at the end of a carbon chain.
What is a secondary halogenoalkane?
an organic compound with a halogen bonded in the middle of a carbon chain.
What is a tertiary halogenoalkane?
an organic compound with a halogen bonded to a carbon at the intersection of two carbon chains/branches.
what is the structure of a carboxylic acid?
R-COOH

carbon single-bonded to a hydroxyl group and double bonded to an oxygen
What is the structure of an ester?
R-COOC-R

A carbon group double bonded to an oxygen and single bonded to another oxygen that is bonded to another carbon group. 
What is the structure of an alcohol?
R-OH

A carbon group single bonded to a hydroxyl group.
What is an aldehyde?
RCHO

A carbon group double bonded to an oxygen and signle bonded to a hydrogen.  This only occurs at the end of a carbon chain.
What is a ketone?
RCOR

A carbon double bonded to an oxygen occuring in the middle of a carbon chain (never at the end).
What is an amine?
RNH2

A carbond group single bonded to a N atom.  The N is typically bonded to two hydrogens and has a free pair of electrons.
What is an amide?
RCONR

A carbon group double bonded to an oxygen and signle bonded to a nitrogen that is single bonded to a carbon group.  This is the peptide bond that connects amoni acids in a primary protein structure.
What are the products of the oxidation of a primary alcohol under reflux?
An alcohol becomes an aldehyde and then a carboxylic acid.  The product continues to be reacted in the round-bottom flask.
What are the products of the oxidation of a secondary alcohol under reflux?
A secondary alcohol forms a ketone only.
What are the products of the oxidation of a primary alcohol distillation?
An aldehyde is formed and is condensed away from the reaction vessel.  It does not have the opportunity to react again to form an aldehyde.
What are the products of the oxidation of a secondary alcohol by distillation?
An aldehyde is formed and will not react further.
Name an oxidizing agent used for the oxidation of an alcohol.
acidified potassium dichromate (heated)
What test identifies alkenes?
Bromine water test.  Bromine reacts with the molecule by addition, attaching one bromine atom on each of the formerly C=C bound carbon atoms.  The brown color fades if the organic compound is an alkene. 
Describe the reaction and components of a polymer.
an addition polymer is formed by the reaction of alkenes with each other.  The carbon atoms found origianlly in the C=C bond of the monomer(s) become the primary chain of the polymer.

Condensation polymers form by the hydrolysis reactions between carboxylic acids and alcohols or between amines and carboxylic acids.
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