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Tonakh
Acronym for the Torah, Nevi'im and Ketuvim books.
Torah
First 5 books (books of Moses) or the Pentateuch or the whole body of Jewish teaching and law.
Pentateuch
First 5 books of Moses in the Jewish bible.
Nevi'im
Book about prophets. Early - History. Late - Visionary, Moral.
Ketuvim
Book that teaches you how to live. It is about your life.
Theophany
Contact with God.
Saul / David
Saul was around 1025 BCE. David creates Jerusalem after Saul.
Solomon
Builds the temple.
Temple Worship
Gave Jews a central place to worship, before this point you just went to the highest place to worship, after the temple was built you went to the temple.
Jerusalem
A central location where Jews lived, became a major trading city. The temple was built here.
Babylonian Exile
The Babylonians destroyed the first temple in 586 BCE.
Antiochus IV
Prohibited Jewish worship.
Macabees
Freed the Jews for worship.
Sadducees
The group of priest, had power during Temple Worship.
Pharisees
Rebel, liberal Jews. Fought for power with the Sadducees.
Essenes
Mystic Jews who withdrew from society.
Zealots
Brought self rule to the Jews, fought against the Greek-Roman rule.
Western/Wailing wall
All that remains of the 2nd temple.
Messiah
Jews were told a Messiah would come.
Rabbinic Judaism
Judaism after the second temple was destroyed. It involved groups of Rabbis to get together.
Messianic Judaism
Eventually became Christianity, but it is those who thought a Messiah had come.
Synagogue
A meeting place for Jewish study and worship in Rabbinic Judaism times.
Minyan
10 Jewish men or Rabbis.
Rabbi
A Jewish man.
Diaspora
The practitioners of Jewish faith living beyond their traditional homeland.
Midrash
Means to seek out. Jewish study.
Halakhah
Jewish Laws and ethics.
Haggadah
Jewish folklore, stories, history, traditions
Hillel the Elder
Jewish man around the time of Christ that taught that the entire Torah sums up to Don't treat your neighbor how you don't want to be treated.
Mishnah
Preserved oral Torah.
Abraham
Promised his decendants would make a Great Nation.
Talmud
Writing down of the oral Torah.
Palestinian Talmud and Babylonian Talmud
The 2 main Talmuds. Common enough to be found in libraries.
Anti-Semitism
Mistreatment of Jews. It has been going on for centuries.
Ghettos
In earlier times, such as the Inquisition, Ghettos were the home of the Jews. You wouldn't be persecuted here, but you had curfews and taxes.
Spanish Inquisition
Jews were blamed for things such as the black plague. Passion plays were common.
Kabbalah
Mystic, numerology type Judaism.
Reform Judaism
Religious movement around the Enlightenment, age of reason and human rights.
Orthodox Judaism
Against reform, traditional Judaism.
Shoah
Genecide during WW2. Some Jews lost faith others believe it is just part of the struggle with God.
Zionism
Movement to get Jews back to Palestine.
Theodore Herzl
Sold the idea of Zionism to Britain and the US.
T'fillin
Leather box with biblical verses about the covenant. Tied to the forehead and upper arm.
Talit
Prayer shawl. Symbolizes the 10 commandments.
Kippah
Hat worn as you are supposed to cover your head in the presence of God.
Sabbath
The seventh day that is kept holy. Don't tavel long distances, don't light fires, family day, pray and study.
Kosher
Ritually correct. Seperate meat and dairy. Animals killed a specific way. Only eat animals that chew the cud.
Bar/Bat Mitzvah
Coming of age at 13 for boys, girls age vary. Bar for boys Bat for girls.
Rosh Hashanah
High holy day. Recreate the story of creation. 10 days long. The world was pure at creation and you make yourself pure again at this time. Ask forgiveness from others and forgive those who have wronged you.
Yom Kippur
Last day of Rosh Hashanah. Day of forgiveness. Day to become right with God.
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