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nephr/o
ren/o
kidneys
pyel/o
urine
ureter/o
ureters
cyst/o
urinary bladder
urethr/o
urethra
prostat/o
prostate
kidneys
constantly filter the blood to remove waste products
renal
pertaining to the kidneys
retroperitoneal
pertaining to being located behind the peritoneum
peritoneum
the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
renal cortex
the outer region of the kidney
medulla
the inner region of the kidney
tubule
small tube
nephron
a functional unit of the kidney that form urine by the processes of filtration, reabsorption and secretion
glomerulus
a cluster of capillaries surrounded by a cup-shaped membrane called the Bowman's capsule
urochrome
the pigment that gives urine its normal yellow-amber or straw color
ur/o
urine
-chrome
color
renal pelvis
the funnel-shaped area within each kidney that is surrounded by renal cortex and medulla
ureters
are two narrow tubes, each about 10-12 inches long, which transport urine from the kidney to the bladder
peristalsis
a series of wave-like contractions, moves urine down each ureter to the bladder
ureteral orifices
located in the wall of the urinary bladder
urinary bladder
a hollow muscular organ that is a reservoir for urine before it is excreted from the body
trigone
the smooth triangular area on the inner surface of the bladder located between the openings of the ureters and urethra
urethra
the tube extending from the bladder to the outside of the body
urinary sphincters
located at either end of the urethra, control the flow of urine from the bladder into the urethra and out of the urethra through the urethral meatus
sphincter
a ring-like muscle that closes a passageway
urethural meatus (urinary meatus)
the external opening of the urethra
meatus
the external opening of a canal
female urethra
approximately 1.5 inches long, and the urethral meatus is located between the clitoris and the opening of the vagina
male urethra
approximately 8 inches long, and the urethral meatus is located at the tip of the penis
hemolytic uremic syndrome
a condition in which hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia cause acute renal failure and possibly death

can be caused by E. coli in young children and the elderly
nephrotic syndrome
a condition in which very high levels of protein are lost in the urine and abnormally low levels of protein are present in the blood
nephrosis
any degenerative kidney disease causing nephrotic syndrome without inflammation
anuria
the absence of urine formation by the kidneys
edema
excessive fluid in the body tissues
hyperproteinuria
the presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in the urine
hypoproteinemia
the presence of abnormally low concentrations of protein in the blood
prostate gland
part of the male reporductive system, surrounds the urethra
nephropathy
any disease of the kidney
diabetic nephropathy
a kidney disease characterized by hyperproteinuria which is the result of thickening and hardening of the glomeruli caused by long-term diabetes mellitis
hydroenphrosis
the dialation of one of both kidneys
urination (voiding or micturition)
the normal process of excreting urine
nephrologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the kidneys
urologist
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders or the urinary system of females and the genitourinary system of males
renal failure (kidney failure)
the inability of one or both of the kidneys to perform their functions
uremia (uremic poisoning)
a toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function is compromised and urea is retained in the blood
acute renal failure (ARF)
has sudden onset and is characterized by uremia
chronic renal failure
the progressive loss of renal function, sometimes leading to uremia, which is caused by a variety of conditions such as kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension
end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
refers to the late stages of chronic renal failure in which there is irreversible loss of the function of both kidneys
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