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Chemical that the body requires from the enviroment
NUTRIENTS
Nutrient (carbohydrate, lipid and protein) required in large amounts
MACRONUTRIENTS
Nutrient (vitamin or mineral) required in small amount
MICRONUTRIENTS
Study of the sources, actions, and interactions of nutrients
NUTRITION
The chemical reation in cells that use or release energy
METABOLISM
Nutrient necessary for growth, normal functioning, and maintaining life that the diet must supply becasue the body cannot synthesize
ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS
Hormone, produced by fat cells, that communicates with the hupothalamus to indicate the degree of hunger
LEPTIN
Hypothalmic transmitter that stimulates hunger
NEUROPEPTIDE Y
enhances appetite by stumulating the release of neuropeptide Y
GHRELIN
Organic compound consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in a ratio
CARBOHYDRATES
Polysaccharide abundant in plant tissues that human digestive enzymes cannot break down
CELLULOSE
Chemical process that breaks fatty acids down into molecules of acetyl which bind conenzyme A, entering a citric acid cycle
BETA OXIDATION
An enzyme that catalyzes the removal of hydrogen or electrons from a fatty acid molecule
FATTY ACID OXIDASES
Type of compound produced during fat catabolism, including acetone, acetoacetic acid, and betahydroxybutyric acid
KETONE BODIES
Fatty acid required for health that body cells cannot synthesize in adequate amounts
ESSENTAL FATTY ACIDS
Nitrogen-containing organic compound composed of bonded amino acid molecules
PROTEINS
Removing amino groups (NH2) from amino acids
DEAMINATION
Nonprotein nitrogenous substance produced as a result of protein metabolism
UREA
Amino acid required for health that body cells cannot synthesize in adequate  amounts
ESSENTAL AMINO ACIDS
Protein that contains adequate amounts of the essential amino acids to maintain body tissues and to promote normal growth and development
COMPLETE PROTEINS
Maintenance of balance when the head and body are suddenly moved or rotated
DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM
Condition in which the amount of nitrogen ingested equals the amount excreted
NITROGEN BALANCE
Unit that measures heat energy andthe energy contents of foods
CALORIES
Rate of metabolic reactions when the body is at rest; BMR
BASAL METABOLIC RATE
When the caloric intake of the body equals its caloric output
ENERGY BALANCE
Used to assess weight considering height,  and has become the basis of classifying a person as underwight, normal weight, overweight, or obese
MASS BODY INDEX
Excess adipose tissue; a body mass index greater than 30
OBESITY
Organic compound other than a carbohydrate, lipid, or protein, needed for normal metabolism but that the body cannot synthesize in adequate amounts and must therefore be obtained in the diet
VITAMINS
Precursor of a vitamin
PROVITAMINS
VITAMIN A
Substance that inhibits oxidation of another substance
ANTIOXIDANTS
VITAMIN D
VITAMIN E
VITAMIN K
B VITAMINS
Vitamin of the B-complex group; vitamin B1
THIAMINE
A vitamin of the B-complex group; vitamin B2
RIBOFLAVIN  
Vitamin of the B-complex group; Nicotinic acid
NIACIN  
Vitmain of the B-complex group; vitamin B5
PANTOTHENIC ACID  
VITAMIN B6
CYANOCOBALMIN VITAMIN B12
B comlex vitamin necessary for normal cellular synthetic processes; folic acid
FOLACIN  
A water-soluble vitamin;member of the vitamin B complex
BIOTIN
One of the water soluavle vitamins; vitmain c
ASCORBIC ACID
Inorganic element essential in human metabolism
MINERALS
Inorganic substance necessary for metabolism that is part of a group that accounts for 75% fo the mineral elements on the body; macromineral
MAJOR MINERALS
CALCIUM
PHOSPHORUS
POTASSIUM
SULFUR
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