by leonM


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What is the purpose of goniometery ?
Measurement of ROM in a joint is called goniometery. One system of measurement that is commonly ud is based on a full circle of 360 degrees. Each joint is evaluated in terms  of the number of degrees it can be moved from the 0 degree position. Muscle strength can be measured on thhe basis of the ability of a muscle to move the part to which it is attaached working against the force of gravity. A grading system is ussed ranging from grade 5 (normal strength) to grade 0 (complete paralysis)
Discuss the dynamics of traction
Traction is the applicaion of a mechanical pull o a part in a certain position during immobilizatio. Trhough a system of ropes and pulleys weights are attached to a fixed point below the are of injury or disease. The apparatus is rigged so that the weights on one end and the weight of the patients bod on th oter ill pll the affected part in oposite directions thus straightening and holding that part in the desired position. There are several ways to accomplish this.
What are the purposes of ROM and the recommended frequency ?
ROM excerises both pssive and active are planned and carried ot as soon as feasible after immobilization occurs as a result of disease injury or surgery The exercise are done to maintain functional connective tissue within the joint and thereby ensure tht every joint retains its function and mobility. Rom EXERCISES SHOuLD BE DONE THREE OR  fours times a day.
How early does contraction formation begin ?
Contraction formation begins within 3 to 7 days after immobilization of a body part and the process usually is complete in 6 to 8 weeks.
Discuss what happens with foot drop.
In footdrop the alf muscles are sortened while the opposing flexor muscles are stretched the result is loss of mucle tone and inability to produce motion.
What are the purposes of isometric exercises ?
Isometric execises involve generating tension between two opposing sets of muscles for example trying to flex the lower arm wile using the opposite hand to try to extended.  
Discuss the post op interventions of an arthroscopy
When patient has recovered from any sedation he is allowed to walk but should not overuse or strain the joint for a few days. The area is observed for swelling or bleeding ice packs may used in the postprocedure assess for circulation selling and sensation    
Describe the technique of a four point crutch gait.
1 Advance left crutch
2 Advance right foot
3 Advance right crutch
4 Advance left foot
Advantages most stable rutch gait reqirements partial weight bearing on both legs
What are the guidelines for the appropriate cane length ?
Walker height is correct when the persons elbow is bent 15 to 30 degree angle while standing upright and grasping the handgrips.
What are the guidelines for the quad setting excercises ?
Define ligament
Define osteoblats
What is the pupose of the cpm machine ?
Continuous passive motion to promote circulation 
How does positioning correlate with flaccid paralysis ?
Patient with flaccid paralysis re not neccesserily positioned the same way   
List all the fuctions of the MS system
Bones provide shape to the body
Discuss all related changes to the MS system
How does mobilization and hemipleia correate ? 
Define ankylosed
Define haversian system
What is the difference between a grade 2 and grade 3
Grade 2 moderate more severe pain ezpecially ith weight beasing swelling and bleeding into joint se loss of funtion
Grage 3 severe complete tearing of fibers pain may be less severe but swelling loss of fuion and bleeding into join are more marked
Discuss treatment for sprain
RICE Rest ice compression and elevation
Define bursitis
Discuss ways to avoid capel tunnel sundrom and include definition and treatment
Discuss treatment interventions for a compound fracture
An open compound fracture is one where there is a break in the skin through which fragment of broken bone protrude. The primary aim in the treatment o fractre is to establish a sturdy union between ends so that the one can be restored t its former state of continuity
What are the advantages of external fixation device ?
External fixation has teh advantage of allowing more freedom of movement that traction or casting and usually is more comfortable with good stability ans usually in more comfotable with good stability there is no need for restricting the patient to bed. In some cases it is possible for the patient to bear weight on her affeted limb but even if this is not allowed she s free to move about oh her own perfom physical therapy exercises and avoid many of the problems of immobility
Discuss cast care
Discuss nursing interventions for bucks traction
Bcks xtension is a simpl skinn tactiong that is used to treat muscle spasm from fracture of the hip o femur preoperatively and for dislocation of the hip. 
Purpose of EMG ?
Electromyelography
Detects abonormal nerve transmission to the muscle and abormal muscle fucntion determines rehabilitaion progress
Define osteomyelitis
Define the exerise program for Rheumatoid Arthiritis
Each exercise pogam it is necessary t enlist the patients cooperation or compliace as the exerises be continued o comliance as the exercises must be contined at home teach the patient how to perform specific exercises so that they donot increase her pain each exercise should e done 3 to 10 times for each joint with the lower number used on days when pain or fatigue is inreased.
What are the guidelines for Fosamax
Discuss guidelines for total hip replacement
A blood salvage unit may be in place o ollect blood drainage that is usually a drain at the surgical site with a ction device attached ti it Iv fluids ull be administered a foley catheter will usually be in place
Extreme care positioning and repositioning the patient avoid ciulatory and respiratory complication 
What are the ways that dislocation cn be diagnosd ?
What are nursing inerventions for soft tissue injuries ?
Nursing care consists of assisting with immobilization as needed and teaching the patient about elevation rest ice application and acitivity restrictions.
List the  advantages of fiberglass cast ?
lighter weight, dry quickly, can bear weight within 30 min, less buly, do not cruble as easily, less likely to damage my getting wet
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